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Informationssystem och databasteknik, 2I-1100 Processer System Modeller.

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En presentation över ämnet: "Informationssystem och databasteknik, 2I-1100 Processer System Modeller."— Presentationens avskrift:

1 Informationssystem och databasteknik, 2I-1100 Processer System Modeller

2 Definition of Business Process A set of activities that takes one or more types of inputs and turns them into an output of greater value to the customer. [Hammer] input output

3 Definition of Business Process A specific ordering of work activities across time and place, with a beginning, an end, and clearly- defined inputs and outputs; a structure for action. [Davenport] output input

4 Order register Add to order Check order lineStop orderCredit check Ship * for each order line OK i lager not OK Credit manager Order manager An Informal Workflow

5 Order register Add to order Check order lineStop orderCredit check Ship * for each order line OK i lager not OK Credit manager Order manager An Informal Workflow Task Resource Selection Parallelism

6 Basic Workflow Concepts Task - a logical unit of work that is carried out as a single whole Resource - a person or a machine that can perform specific tasks Activity - the performance of a task by a a resource Case - a sequence of activities performed to achieve some goal, an order, an insurance claim, a car assembly Work item - the combination of a case and a task that is just to be carried out Process - describes how a particular category of cases shall be managed Control flow construct - sequence, selection, iteration, parallelisation

7 Basic Workflow Concepts Task Activity Work Item Case Process Resource Allocation Resource Type

8 Application Process applications under consideration ready1 check validity accept reject tokenstransitionplace When a transition fires it removes one token from each input place and adds one token to each output place prepare reject letter prepare accept letter send reject send accept ready2

9 Application Process applications under consideration ready1 check validity accept reject When a transition fires it removes one token from each input place and adds one token to each output place prepare reject letter prepare accept letter send reject send accept ready2

10 Application Process applications under consideration ready1 check validity accept reject When a transition fires it removes one token from each input place and adds one token to each output place prepare reject letter prepare accept letter send reject send accept ready2

11 Application Process applications under consideration ready1 check validity accept reject When a transition fires it removes one token from each input place and adds one token to each output place prepare reject letter prepare accept letter send reject send accept ready2

12 Application Process applications under consideration ready1 check validity accept reject tokenstransitionplace When a transition fires it removes one token from each input place and adds one token to each output place prepare reject letter prepare accept letter send reject send accept ready2

13 Application Process applications under consideration ready1 check validity accept reject When a transition fires it removes one token from each input place and adds one token to each output place prepare reject letter prepare accept letter send reject send accept ready2

14 Application Process applications under consideration ready1 check validity accept reject When a transition fires it removes one token from each input place and adds one token to each output place prepare reject letter prepare accept letter send reject send accept ready2

15 Application Process applications under consideration ready1 check validity accept reject When a transition fires it removes one token from each input place and adds one token to each output place prepare reject letter prepare accept letter send reject send accept ready2

16 Enabled Transition A transition is enabled when there is a token in each of its input places Not enabledEnabled

17 Dutch Traffic Light red yellow green yr rg gy

18 Dutch Traffic Light red yellow green yr rg gy

19 Dutch Traffic Light red yellow green yr rg gy

20 Dutch Traffic Light red yellow green yr rg gy

21 Two Traffic Lights red1 yellow1 green1 yr1 rg1 gy1 red2 yellow2 green2 yr2 rg2 gy2

22 Two Traffic Lights red1 yellow1 green1 yr1 rg1 gy1 red2 yellow2 green2 yr2 rg2 gy2

23 Two Traffic Lights red1 yellow1 green1 yr1 rg1 gy1 red2 yellow2 green2 yr2 rg2 gy2

24 Two Traffic Lights red1 yellow1 green1 yr1 rg1 gy1 red2 yellow2 green2 yr2 rg2 gy2

25 Two Traffic Lights red1 yellow1 green1 yr1 rg1 gy1 red2 yellow2 green2 yr2 rg2 gy2

26 Two Traffic Lights red1 yellow1 green1 yr1 rg1 gy1 red2 yellow2 green2 yr2 rg2 gy2

27 Two Traffic Lights red1 yellow1 green1 yr1 rg1 gy1 red2 yellow2 green2 yr2 rg2 gy2

28 Exercise - Traffic Light Construct a Petri net for a traffic light that has four possible states: - red - yellow - green - red + yellow The light moves from red to (red + yellow) and then to green. From green it moves to yellow and then to red.

29 Coloured Petri Nets claims under consideration ready1 check validity accept reject prepare reject letter prepare accept letter send reject send accept ready2 [name: John Doe, amount: 5000] [name: Mary Doe, amount: 400] amount < 1000 amount > 1000 In a classical Petri net, tokens have no structure. In a coloured Petri net, each token is associated with a data structure.

30 Coloured Petri Nets claims under consideration ready1 check validity accept reject prepare reject letter prepare accept letter send reject send accept ready2 [name: John Doe, amount: 5000] [name: Mary Doe, amount: 400] amount < 1000 amount > 1000

31 Coloured Petri Nets claims under consideration ready1 check validity accept reject prepare reject letter prepare accept letter send reject send accept ready2 [name: John Doe, amount: 5000] [name: Mary Doe, amount: 400] amount < 1000 amount > 1000 In a coloured Petri net, the values of a token’s data structure can be used in preconditions that determine which transition that will fire.

32 Coloured Petri Nets claims under consideration ready1 check validity accept reject prepare reject letter prepare accept letter send reject send accept ready2 [name: John Doe, amount: 5000] [name: Mary Doe, amount: 400] amount < 1000 amount > 1000

33 Coloured Petri Nets claims under consideration ready1 check validity accept reject prepare reject letter prepare accept letter send reject send accept ready2 [name: John Doe, amount: 5000] [name: Mary Doe, amount: 400] amount < 1000 amount > 1000

34 Coloured Petri Nets claims under consideration ready1 check validity accept reject prepare reject letter prepare accept letter send reject send accept ready2 [name: John Doe, amount: 5000] [name: Mary Doe, amount: 400] amount < 1000 amount > 1000

35 Coloured Petri Nets claims under consideration ready1 check validity accept reject prepare reject letter prepare accept letter send reject send accept ready2 [name: John Doe, amount: 5000] [name: Mary Doe, amount: 400] amount < 1000 amount > 1000

36 Petri Net with Time Every token gets a timestamp, indicating the time from which the token is available. A transition is enabled when each token to be consumed has a timestamp equal or prior to the current time. Each transition gives a delay to a token produced by the transition

37 Petri Net with Time Before current time = 20, the transition is not enabled and cannot fire. At current time = 20, it will fire. The timestamp of the produced token equals the current time + the transition delay

38 Two Traffic Lights with Time red1 yellow1 green1 yr1 rg1 gy1 red2 yellow2 green2 yr2 rg2 gy Current time = 0

39 Two Traffic Lights with Time red1 yellow1 green1 yr1 rg1 gy1 red2 yellow2 green2 yr2 rg2 gy Current time = 1 25

40 Two Traffic Lights with Time red1 yellow1 green1 yr1 rg1 gy1 red2 yellow2 green2 yr2 rg2 gy Current time = 26 30

41 Two Traffic Lights with Time red1 yellow1 green1 yr1 rg1 gy1 red2 yellow2 green2 yr2 rg2 gy Current time =

42 Two Traffic Lights with Time red1 yellow1 green1 yr1 rg1 gy1 red2 yellow2 green2 yr2 rg2 gy Current time =

43 Swimming School Exercise A student registers at the swimming school. The student will take one or more swimming lessons followed by an examination. Every lesson has a beginning and an end. A student must have his or her individual teacher during a lesson. There are five teachers. Each swimming lesson is followed by another swimming lesson or an individual examination. An examiner is present at the examination, from beginning to end. There are two examiners. When a student has completed an examination, three things might happen: 1. The student passes and leaves the school 2. The student fails, takes additional lessons, and tries again 3. The student fails and gives up a) Model this using a classical Petri net b) Use a coloured Petri net to express that it is required to take 10 lessons before taking the exam and that students drop out after three failed exams c) Add time to model that a lesson takes one hour and an exam 30 min.

44 Basic Workflow Concepts Task - a logical unit of work that is carried out as a single whole Resource - a person or a machine that can perform specific tasks Activity - the performance of a task by a a resource Case - a sequence of activities performed to achieve some goal, an order, an insurance claim, a car assembly Work item - the combination of a case and a task that is just to be carried out Process - describes how a particular category of cases shall be managed Control flow construct - sequence, selection, iteration, parallelisation

45 Workflow Concepts in Petri Nets Task - transition Resource - token Activity - transition that fires Case - token Work item - enabled transition Process - Petri net Control flow construct - modelled by places and transitions

46 Triggers When do transitions fire? Sometimes, someone or something has to fire them. A work item can only be transformed into an activity once it has been triggered. Kinds of triggers A resource initiative An external event A time signal

47 Triggers receive order ask for customer info customer answer no answer manage cancel

48 A Historical Perspective Operating System Application Application Operating System DBMS Application Operating System DBMSUIMS Application Operating System UIMSDBMSWFMS

49 Klassifikation av informationssystem zBeslutstyp Vilka typer av beslut som systemet stödjer yStrategiska yTaktiska yOperationella z Funktioner Vilken funktion i organisationen som systemet stöder yMarknadsföring yTillverkning och tjänster yEkonomi yPersonal

50 Typer av beslutsstödssystem Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) Management Information Systems (MIS) Intelligent Support Systems (ISS) INFORMATIONS- BEHOV Alla dessa system stödjer besluts- fattande

51 TPS - system som hanterar och lagrar transaktioner Mata in data Step 1 Validera data Step 2 Bearbeta data Step 3 Transaktion: ett utbyte mellan två parter Uttag från bankkonto Förfrågan om pris på en produkt Beställning av en vara Hur ett TPS hanterar en transaktion Lagra data Step 2

52 MIS - system som bevakar den interna verksamheten zSammanfattningsrapport - aggregerar data från många transaktioner och presenterar dem i ett koncist format yMånatlig försäljning yÅrlig personalomsättning zAvvikelserapport - beskriver avvikelser mellan prognos och faktiskt utfall yBudgetöverskridande yFörsäljningsminskning

53 ISS - Intelligenta StödSystem zISS - system som stödjer ledningen på högre nivåer att fatta beslut om ostrukturerade problem yDecision Support Systems (DSS) yExecutive Information Systems (EIS)

54 DSS - modell för beslutsstöd Intern data Extern data Beslutsmodeller “What-if” analys Måluppfyllelse Riskbedömning

55 EIS - Executive Information Systems zEIS - system som kan användas för att interaktivt analysera och presentera stora mängder information yDrill-down yGrafisk presentation

56 ISS: ger stöd för komplexa beslut Samband mellan TPS, MIS och ISS TPS: hanterar transaktioner Omvärlds- bevakning MIS: genererar rap- porter om företaget Operationell Taktisk Strategisk

57 Organisatoriska funktioner zEn funktion är en enhet inom en organisation som utför ett antal relaterade aktiviteter. Vanligen kräver dessa aktiviteter en viss kompetens eller specifik utrustning. Funktioner på ett universitet Vakt-mästeriKursregistreringUndervisningSystemadministration

58 IS för marknadsföring zSystem som stödjer försäljning, marknadsföringskampanjer, marknadsanalys, m.m. yCRM (Customer Relationship Management) ySystem för försäljningsanalys

59 IS för tillverkning och tjänster zSystem som stöder inköp, kvalitetskontroll, lagerhantering, produktionsplanering, m.m. yLogistiksystem yMaterialförsörjningssystem

60 IS för ekonomi zSystem som tillhandahåller finansiell information som underlag för beslut yIntern och extern redovisning yOrdermottagning yFakturering

61 IS för personaladministration zSystem som stöder planering, samordning, administration och ledning av personal yLönesystem yKompetensdatabas

62 Processer En process är en sekvens av aktiviteter som resulterar i ett värde för en kund. Ofta behöver resurser från olika funktioner användas för att genomföra en process.

63 Vakt-mästeriKursregistreringUndervisningSystemadministration Processer korsar funktioner Kurs

64 Funktioner och IS FoUMarknadProduktionTjänsterEkonomiPersonal Funktioner Informations- system Varje informationssystem stöder sin egen funktion

65 Integrerade informationssystem Order- hantering Kund- tjänster Ekonomi- rapportering FoUMarknadProduktionTjänsterPersonal Produkt- utveckling Ekonomi


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