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#1. Climate (geographical latitude) high-latitude climate (moderate or cold climates) = low PDI. Tropical = high PDI Why? Human survival, independent thinking,

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1 #1. Climate (geographical latitude) high-latitude climate (moderate or cold climates) = low PDI. Tropical = high PDI Why? Human survival, independent thinking, modernization, questioning of authority, need for technology = > low PDI; and the contrary for high PDI (less need!) Predictiors of PDI

2 # 2. Population –more people = higher PDI Large group----> more centralized concentration of political power

3 # 3. Distribution of wealth  The more unequally the wealth is distributed within a culture, the greater the culture's power distance.

4 TIME GOES ONLY ONE WAY! --->”We are caught in present” Cope: technology (nature), law (other people) and religion (what we don’t know) How we adapt to changes and cope with uncertainties? extent to which a culture feels threatened by ambiguous, uncertain situations and tries to avoid them by establishing more structure ”det som är annorlunda är farligt” (hur hög grad medlemmarna i en kultur känner sig hotade av osäkra eller okända situationer) 2. Uncertainty avoidance

5 plans rules procedures rituals > predictable behavior

6 6 OH UAI

7 The high positive scores on the uncertainty avoidance index (UAI) indicate low tolerance for ambiguity. These cultures prefer to avoid uncertainty and dissent as a cultural value and desire consensus. Cultures with low UAI scores have a high tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity, believe in accepting and encouraging dissenting views among cultural members and in taking risks and trying new things.

8 low UAIhigh UAI emotionscontrollednormal change workless hesitationmore hesitation rulescan be brokenno seniority as criteria for selection yesno Some implications of country uncertainty avoidance differences

9 High UAI: low in modernization (or just at the start) Often in highly changeable situations (economic, political, social) Extensive legislative / judicial system Often characterized by "absolute" religions (Catholicism, Islam) Low UAI: modern tend to be stable (economic, political, social) religions emphasize relativity (Buddhism, Unitarianism) Predictiors of UAI

10 Individual autonomy: good or bad? Gregarious (som lever i flock) vs solitary (ensam) “People’s relationships to other groups they are a part of” –Individualism gäller samhällen i vilka banden mellan individerna är lösa. Var och en förväntas att sköta sig själv och sina närmaste i familjen. –Kollektivism kännetecknar samhällen i vilka människor från födelsen och framåt integreras i starka, väl sammanhållna intergrupper, som under personens hela livstid fortsätter att skydda honom eller henne i gengäld för en obetingad lojalitet 3. Individualism and collectivism


12 High IDV:  individual is most important unit  People taking care of themselves  Making decisions based on individual needs  "I" mentality Low IDV:  Collectivistic cultures believe group is most important unit  They encourage: primary loyalty to group (nuclear family, extended family, caste, organization)  Decision-making based on what is best for the group  Dependence on organization and institutions (Expectation that organization / institution / group will take care of individual)  "We" mentality

13 Individualistic cultures -- people speak out, question, confrontational, are direct Collectivistic cultures -- people blend in, avoidance conflict, use intermediaries

14 low IDV high IDV act in interest ofin-group“economic men” collective decision+- family and socoal context +- source of inoformation social netwoerkmedia Some implications of country individualism/collectivism differences

15 High PDI - Low IDV & vice versa  but dependent individualists (Latin European) and independent collectivism (Costa Rica, Austria, Israel) Wealth: rich=high IDV; poor=collectivistic Climate: colder=higher IDV, warmer=lower IDV Predictiors of IDV:

16 Do we prefer achievement and assertiveness or nurturance and social support? ” manliness”, achievement and ambition, male behaviour vs. quality of life, sympathy for the unfortunate, equality between sexes Båda könens sociala roller bestäms bara delvis av deras biologiska förutsättningar män som TUFFA och kvinnor som MJUKA 4. Masculinity and Femininity

17 does society stress achievement or nurture? Masculinity is seen to be the trait which emphasizes ambition, acquisition of wealth, and differentiated gender roles. Femininity is seen to be the trait which stress caring and nurturing behaviors, sexuality equality, environmental awareness, and more fluid gender roles

18 –Samhällen i vilka de sociala könsrollerna är tydligt åtskilda; män förutsätts vara självhävdande, tuffa och inriktade mot materiell framgång;  Kvinnor förutsätts vara mer anspråkslösa, ömma eller mjuka och engagerade av livets kvalitet

19 Samhällen i vilka de sociala könsrollerna överlappar varandra, både män och kvinnor förutsätts vara anspråkslösa, ömma eller mjuka och inriktade på livets kvalitet

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