9 Hälsa = frånvaro av symptom…? Både inom psykologi och medicin har kritiken ökat mot ett alltför stort fokus på de negativa aspekterna av hälsobegreppet
10 Greater optimism is associated with greater longevity and lowered rates of non-fatal heart attacks (Kubzansky et al., 2001)Pleasant emotion expressed at age 22 as women entered a catholic convent predicted their longevity after age 75 (Danner, Snowdon, & Friesen, 2001)Low life satisfaction predicted fatal accidents (Koivumaa-Honkanen et al., 2002)Preoperative well-being predicted better recovery from surgery (Kopp et al., 2003)Well-being of patient entering whiplash rehabilitation predicted whether going back to work after 2 years (Heikkilä, Heikkilä, & Eisenmann, 1998)Patients with end-state renal failure were more likely to survive for 4 years if they were happy than if they were not (Devins, Mann, Mandin, & Leonard, 1990)People high in well-being have easier to cope with pain than people low in well-being (Keefe et al., 2001)People put into a positive mood showed lower blood pressure reactivity to a stressor than controls (Smith, Ruiz, & Uchino, 2001)People reporting high levels of positive emotions were at reduced risk of developing symptoms when exposed to cold viruses (Cohen et al., 2003)
11 Samband mellan välbefinnande och hälsa Välbefinnande och mortalitetVälbefinnande och minskad sårbarhetVälbefinnande- snabbare rehabiliteringSambandet mellan välbefinnande och hälsa påverkas också av hälsorelaterat beteende som träning, rökning, alkohol, diet
12 Forskningsmässiga effekter av att vi bortser från välbefinnande? Fokusbias: Well-being distinct from ill-being. 2 biomarkörer stödde spegelhypotesen, 7 stödde hypotesen att well-being och ill-being representerar olika aspekter av hälsa (Ryff et al. 2006)
13 Distinct or mirrored?DeterminantsOutcomes/effects
14 Validitetsbias: Individer som upplevde subjektivt välbefinnande samtidigt som de inte hade ”depression” (completely healthy) hade en lägre prevalens av CVD än de som endast hade ”frånvaro av depression”. Detta indikerar att tidigare forskning kan ha underestimerat risken för exempelvis CVD eftersom risken är jämförd med en väldigt heterogen grupp av ”icke-depressiva” (Keyes, 2004).
17 Success gives happiness… Robust consistency showing that happiness also precede success. Review of 225 cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental studies, participants (Lyubomirsky, King, & Diener, 2005)Clear correlation between employee engagement, well-being, and business outcomes (i.e. profit & turnover). Meta analyses of the Gallup studies, hundreds of work units around the world (Harter, Schmidt, & Keyes, 2002)Clear association between well-being and rehabilitation (Kopp et al., 2003, Heikkilä, Heikkilä, & Eisenmann, 1998)Induced positive affectWidens the scope of attention (Fredrickson & Branigan, 2005)Broadens behavioral repertoire (Fredrickson & Branigan, 2005)Increases creativity (Isen, Daubman, & Nowicki, 1987)
19 Set-pointPresence of positive affectMoodWell-beingHealthOverall life satisfactionHappinessComplete healthSubjective well-beingHomeostasisPositive psychologyPositive healthSense of meaningFlowAbsence from negative affectDomain life satisfactionJoyPsychological well-beingContentmentHedonic well-beingQuality of lifeEudaimonic well-beingObjective well-beingRelaxation
26 Homeostasis Major life event Set-point Set-point Set-point Ny set-point
27 Psychological well-being As a measure of eudaimonic well-beingAutonomy – independence and self-determinationEnvironmental mastery – the ability to manage one’s lifePersonal growth – being open to new experiencesPositive relations with others– having satisfying high quality relationshipsPurpose in life – believing that one’s life is meaningfulSelf-acceptance – a positive attitude towards oneself and one’s past life.Ryff 2004
28 Realize that enduring happiness doesn't come from financial success Realize that enduring happiness doesn't come from financial success. People adapt to changing circumstances—even to wealth or a disability.Take control of your time. Happy people feel in control of their lives, often aided by mastering their use of time.Act happy. We can sometimes act ourselves into a frame of mind. Manipulated into a smiling expression, people feel better; when they scowl, the whole world seems to scowl back. So put on a happy face.Seek work and leisure that engages your skills. Happy people often are in a zone called "flow"—absorbed in a task that challenges them without overwhelming them.Join the "movement" movement. An avalanche of research reveals that aerobic exercise not only promotes health and energy, it also is an antidote for mild depression and anxiety.Give your body the sleep it wants. Happy people live active vigorous lives yet reserve time for renewing sleep and solitude.Give priority to close relationships. Intimate friendships with those who care deeply about you can help you weather difficult times.Focus beyond self. Reach out to those in need. Doing good also makes one feel good.Be grateful. People who pause each day to reflect on some positive aspect of their lives experience heightened well-being.Nurture your spiritual self. For many people, faith provides a support community.Nedkortat från David G. Myers, The Pursuit of Happiness (Avon Books)HUR MAN BLIR LYCKLIG
29 Tack…Avdelningen för Samhällsmedicin och folkhälsa
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