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En historisk bakgrund lutad mot Nobelprisen DNA Gustav Bohlin Linköpings Universitet 2014-04-28.

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En presentation över ämnet: "En historisk bakgrund lutad mot Nobelprisen DNA Gustav Bohlin Linköpings Universitet 2014-04-28."— Presentationens avskrift:

1 En historisk bakgrund lutad mot Nobelprisen DNA Gustav Bohlin Linköpings Universitet

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3 1902 Fischer – Sugar/purine synthesis (Chemistry) 1910 Kossel - Nucleic structures 1933 Morgan - Chromosomes heredity 1946 Muller - Mutations X-ray 1957 Todd – Nucleotides, nucleotide co-enzymes (Chemistry) 1958 Beadle, Tatum & Lederberg - Genetic physiology 1959 Ochoa & Kornberg Biological synthesis of RNA/DNA 1962 Crick, Watson & Wilkins – Structure of DNA 1965 Jacob, Lwoff & Monod – Genetic control of enzyme/virus synthesis 1968 Holley, Khorana & Nirenberg - Genetic code 1969 Delbruck, Hershey & Luria – Genetic structure of viruses 1970 Leloir – Sugar nucleotides role in synthesis of carbohydrates (Chemistry) 1972 Anfinsen, Moore & Stein – Ribonuclease (Chemistry) 1975 Baltimore, Dulbecco & Temin – Tumor viruses 1978 Arber, Nathans & Smith – Restriction enzymes and application to molecular genetics 1980 Berg, Gilbert & Sanger – Biochemistry and sequencing techniques for nucleic acids (Chemistry) 1982 Klug – Structure nucleic acid-protein complexes crystallography (Chemistry) 1983 McClintock - Mobile genetic elements 1987 Tonegawa – Genetic principle for antibody diversity 1989 Altman & Cech – Catalytic properties of RNA (Chemistry) 1989 Bishop & Varmus - Retroviral oncogenes 1993 Roberts & Sharp – Split genes 1993 Mullis & Smith – PCR and other (Chemistry) 1995 Lewis, Nüsslein-Volhard & Wieschaus – Genetic control of embryo development 2002 Brenner, Horvitz & Sulston – Genetic regulation of organ development and apoptosis 2006 Fire & Mello – RNA interference/gene silencing 2006 Kornberg – Eukaryotic transcription molecular basis (Chemistry) 2007 Capecchi, Evans & Smithies – Knockout mice 2009 Blackburn, Greider & Szostak – Telomeres and telomerase 2012 Gurdon & Yamanaka – Reprogramming of mature cells to stem cells. 3

4 Innan Nobel Friedrich Miescher upptäckte DNA (nuklein) Spekulerade i samband mellan nuklein och ärftlighet men övergav dessa idéer. 4

5 Innan Nobel Gregor Mendel “Experiment på växthybridisering” 1865 Egenskaper ärvs från en generation till en annan. Recessiva eller dominanta Begrepp som genetik, gen, fenotyp och genotyp lanserades under 1910-talet 5

6 I Mieschers fotspår De fem nukleotidernas struktur beskrevs under 1900-talets första årtionden av Albrecht Kossel (NP Medicin, 1910), Emil Fischer (NP Kemi, 1902) och Pheobus Levene. Einar Hammarsten på Karolinska Institutet framstående i nukleinsyreforskning (och tongivande i Nobelkommittén). 6

7 I Mendels fotspår Thomas Hunt Morgan (NP Medicin, 1933), visade 1911 att de ärftliga anlagen sitter på kromosomerna. Hermann Joseph Muller (NP Medicin 1946), lyckades inducera mutationer genom röntgenstrålning. 7

8 “What is the nature of the elements of heredity that Mendel postulated as purely theoretical units? What are genes? Now that we locate them in the chromosomes are we justified in regarding them as material units; as chemical bodies of a higher order than molecules? Frankly, these are questions with which the working geneticist has not much concern himself, except now and then to speculate as to the nature of the postulated elements. There is no consensus of opinion amongst geneticists as to what the genes are, whether they are real or purely fictitious.” T.H. Morgan

9 “If one assumes that the genes consist of known substances, there are only the proteins to be considered, because they are the only known substances which are specific for the individual.” Caspersson, T., Hammarsten, E,. Hammarsten H., (1935) Interactions of proteins and nucleic acid. Transactions of the Faraday Society 31:367–389. 9

10 Mystiska indicier som aldrig fick Nobelpris Griffith, 1928 Avery, McCarty & MacLeod, 1944 Avery & McCarty, 1946 Chargaff, 1950 Hotchkiss, 1950 Hershey & Chase,

11 Genombrottet Watson & Crick 1953 (NP Medicin, 1962) 11

12 Genombrottet Watson, Crick & Wilkins 1953 (NP Medicin, 1962) 12

13 Molekylärbiologins födelse for their discovery of… 1958 …that genes act by regulating definite chemical events/concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria …the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid …the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material …genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis …the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis …the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses …sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates. osv.. 13

14 Fram till idag for their discovery of… 2006 …RNA interference – gene silencing by double-stranded RNA …the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription (Chemistry) 2007 …principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells …how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase …that mature cells can be reprogrammed to be pluripotent. osv? 14

15 Medicinpriser oftare till upptäckter rörande fysiologiska funktioner Kemipriser oftare till upptäckter av analystekniker 15

16 Medicinpriser oftare till upptäckter rörande fysiologiska funktioner Kemipriser oftare till upptäckter av analystekniker Men undantag finns förstås! 16

17 Framtidens priser? Epigenetik – Adrian P. Bird, Howard Cedar & Aharon Razin DNA-nanoteknik – A. Paul Alivisatos, Chad A. Mirkin, Nadrian C. Seeman 17

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