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150th Estrad lecture Moving entrepreneurship forward.

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1 150th Estrad lecture Moving entrepreneurship forward

2 Entrepreneurship in health care sectors – Area of interest for Caroline Wigren-Kristoferson

3 A unique time in history The Act on System of Choice in the Public Sector (2008:962) entered into force on 1 January – Open up for private actors to enter the market – County councils and municipalities – Users choose service providers within the system A monopoly is broken up, which according to Schumpeter is defined as entrepreneurship.

4 A market with a lot of small firms on the market, and a very few very large firms - in between there is a void. Have had the opportunity to follow a group of midwifes who have started private firms, delivering publicly financed health care.

5 Tend to identify with what they are doing in everyday life. What they do help them to create their identities.

6 A wish from policy makers that we would see a diversity of new actors on the market delivering publicly financed health care services. Only the beginning… A lot will probably happen in the health and care sectors. People leave public organizations to start a firm because they want to perform the service in a different way.

7 It seems to be a challenge for the entrepreneurs to perceive themselves as entrepreneurs. So the questions to discuss are: – What can I /we /policy makers do if we want to support entrepreneurship in the sector, if we aim at a sector that consists of a diversity of actors, not only large VC-owned actors? – How can I continue my journey and study identity construction among the entrepreneurs in the sector, what do you suggest?

8 Entrepreneurial Orientation: Too Much of a Good Thing Vinit Parida Assistant Professor Center for Interorganizational Innovation Research (CiiR) Entrepreneurship and Innovation Luleå University of Technology Source: Wales, J.W., Patel, C.P., Parida, V. & Kreiser, P.M. (forthcoming), Non-linear Effects of Entrepreneurial Orientation on Small Firm Performance: The Moderating Role of Resource Orchestration Capabilities, Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal.

9 Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO)  “strategy-making practices, management philosophies, and firm level behaviors that are entrepreneurial in nature”  Key knowledge voids remain regarding this relationship in the context of small firms (i.e. less than 50 employees) due to mixed results  Examining the potential curvilinear nature of relationship between EO-performance  At low to moderate level of EO (Benefits out weights costs)  Discovery of new entry through proactive search process  Less resource intensive and manageable new entry opportunities  Less risky- incremental innovations  At high levels of EO (Costs out weights benefits)  Simultaneous experiments would stretch recourses base  Extensive ‘bold strokes’ or ‘courageous moves’ through radical innovations  Symbolic use of market intelligence for satisfying entrepreneurial agenda Hypothesis1: The relationship between EO and firm performance is inverted U-shaped for small firms Firm Growth Entrepreneurial Orientation Innovativeness Risk-taking Proactiveness

10 Moderating Effects  ICT capability refers to the extent to which a firm is able to utilize ICT to improve its overall business processes (i.e. efficiency)  Streamline business processes and reduce cost of production  Reduce cost associated with product development (e.g. virtual prototyping)  Facilities internal external information exchange, leading to entrepreneurial alertness  Network capability refers to a firm’s ability to use of inter-organizational relationships to gain access to various resources held by other actors (i.e. effectiveness)  Connecting to new and diverse actors enable improved ability to develop innovations  Greater partner knowledge sharing reduces knowledge asymmetry  Reduce transaction costs through lowering likelihood of opportunistic behavior  Improved ability to take strategic decisions about new market enter Hypotheses 2 & 3: ICT capability and Network capability positively moderates the curvilinear relationships between EO and small firm performance

11 Interpretation of Inverted U-shaped Relationship Tests

12 Non-linear Moderating Effects of Capabilities

13 Theoretical Contributions  EO-performance relationship dose not hold indefinitely for small firms  On average a low to moderate levels of EO produces the highest growth (e.g. low inflection points)  Based on resource orchestration theory, the optimal level of EO vary as a function of organizational capabilities (i.e. ICT and network capabilities)  Moderate level is not always optimal  Both capabilities play important role in maximizing the utility of EO in small firms  Pursuing higher levels of EO requires higher levels of ICT capability and network capability

14 Managerial Contributions  When not possessing critical organizational capabilities, increased level of EO can be less beneficial or even harmful  Post-hoc analysis: Size of small firm plays strong influencing role on EO-performance relationship  Managers need to balance EO with ICT capability, network capability, and firm size to best enhance performance

15 Entrepreneurial Orientation: Is it Too Much of a Good Thing? Thank You! For more information contact: Vinit Parida

16 Innovation beyond Product Development Maria Elmquist, Esbri Estrad, Associate Professor, PhD. Center for Business Innovation Div. of Innovation Engineering and Management Chalmers University of Technology 16Maria Elmquist - Estrad

17 Innovation  Something new /knowledge/technology) that creates new value for customers or the producing firm when it reaches the market.  Large firm focus: efficiency (lean!)  Claim to work with innovation  Innovation =/= R&D  Innovation Capabilities Toyota Prius Maria Elmquist - Estrad

18 My research interest: Innovation Capabilities (IC)  The firm’s ability to deploy its available resources to generate and appropriate value in new ways  System view rather than process (resources, processes, mindset)  Strategic intent  External relations  Managerial capabilities  IC are “innovation muscles” Maria Elmquist - Estrad

19 Main research questions:  How can the development of innovation capabilities be organized?  How can the development of innovation capabilities be managed?  How can companies open up their innovation processes? Maria Elmquist - Estrad

20 For the discussion  How can large firms learn from entrepreneurial processes (and vice versa)?  How can we study capabilities?  What role can/should researchers play? Maria Elmquist - Estrad

21 Gaseller – vad vet vi och vad vet vi inte? Karl Wennberg Handelshögskolan i Stockholm Näringslivets forskningsinstitut Ratio

22 Vikten av Gaseller Gaseller? Kompetenser Marknadsfokus Policy slutsatser Varför är gaseller viktiga? En liten grupp snabbväxande företag skapar nästan hela nettotillväxten av jobb (Henrekson & Johansson, 2010) Anställer ofta individer utan “exakt rätt” kompetens men med “rätt attityd” (Coad, Daunfeldt, Johansson & Wennberg, 2012; Hamilton & Danell, 2012) Gaseller finns i alla branscher och regioner, dock ojämnt fördelade (Delmar & Wennberg, 2010)

23 Vikten av Gaseller Gaseller? Kompetenser Marknadsfokus Policy slutsatser Ledaregenskaper Ofta påbörjad (men inte alltid avslutad) högskoleutbildning Ofta gedigen branscherfarenhet (Andersson, Efendic, Wennberg, 2012) Företagsegenskaper Samtliga branscher: I Sverige allt vanligare med tjänsteföretag (t.ex. bemanningsföretag) Ofta en professionell styrelse Internt genererade vinstmedel Ibland höga marginaler, men varierar stort (Markman & Gartner, 2002) Gaseller…hur ser de ut?

24 Kompetensutveckling oftast intern Vikten av Gaseller Gaseller? Kompetenser Marknadsfokus Policy slutsatser Starkt fokus på rekrytering Viss kompetensutvecklin g vid behov Strategier som centrerar runt de anställda Det svåraste: "Att hitta rätt folk" Gasellerna utvecklar interna kompetenser, framförallt genom rekrytering “passa in” viktigast, formell utbildning / erfarenhet mindre viktigt (Hamilton & Danell, 2012)

25 Success factor? Marknadsfokus Vikten av Gaseller Gaseller? Kompetenser Marknadsfokus Policy slutsatser Marknadskunskap hos gasellerna ger konkurrensfördelar Flexibilitet att ta marknadsandelar och rekrytera nyckelpersonal även under lågkonjunktur Möjliggör flytt till en attraktiv position på marknaden Anställda flyttas till efterfrågade nischer Kunderna kommer för hjälp att hantera marknaden Ger kunderna exakt det de ville ha

26 4% av alla företag skapar 50% av alla nya jobb Begränsad forskning om både interna och externa förutsättningar för gaselltillväxt Human Resources, Strategy, Organization, Economics, Dynamic Systems, Networks, etc. Inte alltid mer lönsamma, få uppvisar uthållig tillväxt (Halvarsson & Daunfeldt, 2011; Markman & Gartner, 2002) Snabbväxare viktiga Kunskap Saknas Interdisciplinaritet viktigt Slumpen? Vikten av Gaseller Gaseller? Kompetenser Marknadsfokus Policy slutsatser Slutsatser

27 Tack… …Nils Karlson, Henrik Lindberg, Elina Fergin, Markus Danell & Sebastian Hamilton (Ratio) …Nedim Efendic (Handelshögskolan) …Sven-Olov Daunfeldt & Dan Johansson (HUI) …Andreas Nilses (DI) …Erkko Autio (Imperial College) …Johan Wiklund (Syracuse) …Frederic Delmar (Lund) …Alex Coad (University of Sussex) …Anna Öhrwall Rönnbäck (Linköping University) …Erik Stam (Utrecht University) Frågor / kommentarer? Och Tack… Ragnar Söderbergs Stiftelse Handelsbankens Forskningsstiftelser FORES VINNOVA

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