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Datalogihistoria Stefan Arnborg, KTH

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1 Datalogihistoria Stefan Arnborg, KTH

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3 Timeline for computing ideas Sexagesimal Abacus: Sumeria 2500 BC Euclid Geometry: Alexandria 300 BC (Euclidean GCD algorithm) Archimedes: Numerics 250 BC Diophantus equation solving: 300 AD Brahmagupta, quadratic equation: 600 AD Al-Khwarizmi, algebra: 800 AD Omar Khayyám, cubic equation: 1100 AD

4 Timeline for computing ideas Tycho Brahe: Big Science Data Collection (1600) Kepler: Ordered (but never got) a calculator from Schickard (1623) Pascal: Produced and patented calculator based on abacus principle (1642) Leibniz: invented summing, subtracting, multiplying and dividing calculator (1700) Gauss: Astronomy numerics, etc (1800)

5 Timeline for computing ideas Thomas de Colmar: First commerciallly successful calculator (1820) Charles Babbage: Unsuccessful work ( ) Scheutz (father and son) Successful (but delimited) ( ) Martin Wiberg: compact, printing,1875 Odhner, Facit, Åtvidaberg: Large volume of calculators,

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7 Timeline for computing ideas Hollerith: Electric Tabulating System,1889 Key punch, punched card, sorter Teletypewriter: 1910—1980 IBM: 1924 IBM S/360: 1966 Intel 8086/Motorola 68000: 1977 Microsoft: 1980 Linux Distributions: 1993 Iphone: 2007

8 Jacquard invented computerized loom driven by program cards. Made possible use of less, and less skilled, labour in textile manufacturing.

9 Lord Byron took the side of workers destroying Jacquard’s invention --still the only popular revolt directly targeting computers Ada Byron Did not know what his daughter was to be up to - nor where his teasing of Mary Shelley would lead

10 Mary Shelley - urged by Lord Byron -- describes how Frankenstein creates a human-like being from biological materials, and gives it life by ’galvani’s’ programming method. But the being was -- and had to be -- emotionally dysfunctional

11 Cambridge Wranglers -Created the math you studied: Green, Stokes, Macauly, Routh Maxwell, Larmor, Cunningham, Dirac… -Competitive math examination aimed at ranking candidates for fellowships -- -Appointments for life with no particular duties -- often awarded at age 20-25

12 Charles Babbage Mathematician, Wrangler dropout Reform of Tripos, Analytical Society Difference & Analytical Engines: Total failures Standardisation of tooling and tolerances in fine mechanics Communicative disability?

13 Babbage’s analytical engine

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15 Scheutz Differential Calculator: Stockholm -> Paris(1855) -> Dudley Observatory -> Smithsonian Institution(1900)

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18 Metropolis: UFA Film 1927

19 IBM/Harvard Mark ADD A TO C GIVING B B=A + C B:=A+C

20 Zuse’s Z3

21 John von Neuman and the ’Princeton machine – ancestor of BESK

22 Berömda prognoser Den föreslagna satsningen på BESK kommer att innebära att Sveriges behov av siffermaskinberäkningar kommer att kunna uppfyllas under överskådlig framtid. (datorutredning, 50-tal)

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24 Isaac Asimov: Caves of Steel Hjälten upptäcker plötsligt att han arbetar med en humanoid robot Stiftelsetrilogin Asimov trodde liksom etablissemanget på KTH att framtiden låg i utveckling av räknestickan.

25 Logic and Foundations of Mathematics: Frege, Peirce.. For 2200 years, investigators had learned Aristotle’s logic from Organon -- without questioning it but applying it to problems of interest. Frege, Peirce, Russel investigated logic and its use as a mathematical disciplne. Frege defined modern predicate logic -- unfortunately for him with a rather weird notation.

26 Predicate Calculus Formulas recursively built Structures can satisfy formulas Formulas can follow from formulas S ]=  : structure S satisfies   ]--  : formula  derivable from  Datalog: Data base language based on predicate logic SQL: Datalog with bells and whistles

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28 Alan Turing Halting Theorem First result in computational complexity (1936): It is not possible for a computer to decide whether or not a computer computation (with unbounded memory) will terminate. Proof by reduction: If such a method exists, a program can be constructed which must terminate and also must not terminate

29 Halting problem, Church-Turing conjecture Formalized in the Turing Machine (TM) Lambda calculus, recursive functions: both equivalent to TM Turing-Church Conjecture: Everything computable can be computed by a Turing Machine. So: human thinking can be performed by a TM, basis for Artificial Intelligence.

30 Alan Turing First surviving AI speculation is the Turing test(1950): A computer has human intelligence if humans cannot distinguish its reactions from those of a human Turing contributed significantly to allied victory in WW II by deciphering German units’ marching orders. Committed suicide during torture after homosexuality sentence.

31 John McCarthy: Founder of Artificial Intelligence Logic Resolution proving Specialized Logics, non-monotonic logic, LISP

32 SIMULA: Algol plus LISP, Object-orientation

33 Svensk datorindustri: Stansaab, STRIL 60

34 Programmering: konst eller vetenskap? NATO 1968 Conference on Software Engineering: - Programvaruprojekt svårstyrda. - Tillämpa Taylorism i produktionen av programvara? (rader/timme, waterfall) - Men är programmering produktion eller konstruktion? (chief programmer team, agile development)

35 C A R Hoare:Correctness Proofs While C do S Antag P invariant över S, P{S}P. Då gäller också P{while C do S}P&~C (partiell korrekthet) Visa också att programmet avslutas: Konstruera funktion som måste minska i varje iteration, och är ett naturligt tal. Terminering+partiell korrekthet=total korrekthet

36 Euklides GCD u0>l0 l:=l0;u:=u0; gcd(l0,u0)=gcd(l,u) While l~=u do Begin u:=u-l; If u

37 Berömda prognoser Den föreslagna satsningen på SIMULA kommer att löna sig på några års sikt. (SIMULA-utredning, Jacob Palme, sent 60-tal) IBM 360 Simula: högt pris även för universitet DEC System 10: DECUS Open Source men kraftigt systemberoende LUND Simula: ??

38 Free software does not mean non-commercial. The word “free” has two legitimate meanings: Think of “free speech” as opposed to “free beer”. (R.M. Stallman)

39 Scenario år 1995, skrivet 1978: Tänkbara funktioner : -att sätta ihop brev med standard- iserade textfragment -Hjälpmedel att få ut texter i form av skyltar, stordia och annat En typisk användning av datateven blir att hämta information ur olika databaser, t ex nyheter om företag i stålbranschen eller sportresultat.

40 Tyvärr har UNIX inte fått den spridning det förtjänar. Det är skrivet i ett språk, C, som inte finns på de flesta datorfabrikat. (Framtidsstudie, 1978)

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42 NP-complete problems (P=?NP) Kan vi effektivt avgöra om en logisk satsformel är satisfierbar? Då, och endast då, kan ’alla’ kombinatoriska problem lösas effektivt (Cook’s teorem) Clay prize: 1 M USD till den som hittar svaret (och bevisar det). De flesta som räknas tror svaret är nej. Så AI är praktiskt omöjligt i alla fall?

43 The Art of Computer Programming D.E. Knuth. Påbörjat Vol 1: Fundamental Algorithms, 1968 Vol 2: Seminumerical Algorithms, 1970 Vol 3: Searching and Sorting, 1973 TeX, …. Vol 4: Combinatorial Algorithms, Vol 5: Syntactical Algorithms Vol 6: Theory of Languages Vol 7: Compilers

44 With time, the chart of complexity classes has become embarassingly complex. And it rests on unproved conjectures. Logics of knowledge and belief Games Combinatorial optimization Feasible problems Parallelizable problems

45 F-sektionens 50-årsjubileum Relationen mellan problem och algoritm Löser en viss algoritm ett givet problem? Minsta resurs för algoritm att lösa givet problem? Finns effektiv algoritm för att lösa ett problem? Hur beskriver man metoder att lösa problem nästan alltid, nästan rätt, eller nästan alltid nästan rätt?

46 Vinnarna av Cipher Challenge 2001 RSA cryptosystem uses that primality is easy, but factorization is difficult (Rivest, Shamir Amir, 1971) Produce two large primes and multiply them. With the product you can encrypt messages but you can only decrypt if you know the factors

47 2067 miljarder gick upp i rök Sex Ericsson försvann i börskaos (Svenska Dagbladet 4 mars 2002) Dataprojektor för färg, stor som risgryn, för en dollar Global uppkoppling, trådlös och fast Sensorer i sandkornsstorlek avläser allt, och skickar det rätt Mikromekaniska kretsar reparerar människor. Åldrandet avskaffas (L. Johnsson,Daedalus 2002) Future computer technology: The limit is set by what users are willing to pay...

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51 To be fully intelligent, to have a mind, a machine would have to live in our world as a body, not just a mind. L. Wittgenstein KTH-CSC-CVAP, Pahlavan robot head

52 Hiroshi Ishiguro: Actroids

53 Law and bureaucrazy: -- Do the patients and taxpayers own the health care system? Or is it the opposite way around? M. Foucault, Punir et Surveiller: Panopticon as symbol for disciplining humans System structures determine who can see what

54 Law and bureaucrazy: -- Do the patients and taxpayers own the health care system? Or is it the opposite way around? M. Foucault, Punir et Surveiller: Panopticon as symbol for disciplining humans System structures determine who can see what

55 That’s all, folks!


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