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Intressenthantering Kristian Widén. Varför kommunicera? Det största hotet mot ett projekt är oförmåga att kommunicera “The key element is communication”

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En presentation över ämnet: "Intressenthantering Kristian Widén. Varför kommunicera? Det största hotet mot ett projekt är oförmåga att kommunicera “The key element is communication”"— Presentationens avskrift:

1 Intressenthantering Kristian Widén

2 Varför kommunicera? Det största hotet mot ett projekt är oförmåga att kommunicera “The key element is communication” (J K Lemley, 1995, Managing the Channel Tunnel- Lessons Learned) Rätt kommunikation till rätt intressent vid rätt tidpunkt

3 Kommunikationens grundläggande koncept (Cleland, 1999, Project Management) Var så tydlig och rak som möjligt. Använd kunskap om vem mottagaren är och vilka förväntningar han/hon har när du väljer medium för kommunikation. Planera tidpunkten för kommunikationen så att den passar mottagaren.

4 Kommunikationsplanering Identifiera intressenterna Gör en intressentanalys Bedöm kommunikationsbehovet hos varje intressent Dokumentera kommunikationsplanen Uppföljning och erfarenhetsåterföring

5 Förhållande mellan intressenter och kontaktvägar

6 Vad är en intressent? Stakeholder = Intressent? –”Stakeholder”, Stanford, 1963 Företagsdefinition –Any group or individual who can affect, or is affected by, the achievment of a corporations purpose (Freeman, 1984) Projektledningsdefinition –Project stakeholders are indivduals and organisation that are actively involved in the project, or whose interests may be affected as a result of project execution or project completion (PMBOK) –A project stakeholder is a person or group of people who have a vested interest in the success of a project and the environment within which the project operates (Gower Handbook of Project Management)

7 Vested Interest ≈ Egenintresse Investerare/finansiär Konkurrenter Konkurrenter om resurser Myndigheter/regelansvariga Berörda av projektets genomförande Berörda av projektets resultat Och så vidare…..

8 Vested Interest ≈ Egenintresse Makt (Power) Legitimitet (Legitimacy)Angelägenhet (Urgency)

9 Intressentgrupper 7 Definitive Stakeholder 5 Dangerous Stakeholder 4 Dominant Stakeholder 1 Dormant Stakeholder 6 Dependent Stakeholder 3 Demanding Stakeholder 2 Discretionary Stakeholder POWER LEGITIMACY URGENCY

10 Utveckling av intressentbegreppet Företaget eller projektet Leverantörer Kunder Ägare Anställda Extern

11 Exempel på intressentgrupper Project resources Internal Stakeholders External Stakeholders Project owners Client organisation Project Management team Customer user Suppliers contractors subcontractors Employees Financiers Creditors Social organisations Political organisation Local, and National authorities and governments Environmentalists Local communities The general public Interests groups Real estate owners Nearby residents Trade and industry Social Services (schools, Hospitals etc) Media Anyone else who believes he or she has a stake in the project Example: Construction Projects

12 Grundläggande problemställning Intressenternas behov är oändliga Projektets resurser är ändliga Alla behov kan inte uppfyllas Intressentanalys

13 Bedömning av intressenternas: –Möjlighet (makt) att påverka –Intresse av att påverka –Ståndpunkt/position Intern/extern intressent Behov/krav Motståndare/förespråkare Dynamisk analys –Förändras över tiden

14 Intressentkarta Hur stort är intresset hos olika intressenter att påverka projektets beslutsprocess? Har de makt och medel att göra det? Makt Stor Högt Liten Lågt Intresse Nyckel- intressenter Håll nöjda Minimala åtgärder Håll informerade (Johnson, Scholes 1999)

15 Ex Villa Sunna i Lund Level of interest Power 1 1 10 6321 Level of interest Power 1 1 10 5 6 321 Level of interest Power 1 1 10 5 4 321 Level of interest Power 1 1 10 3 2 1 Level of interest Power 1 1 10 3 2 1 Level of interest Power 1 1 10 4 3 2 1 55 1. The real estate developer 2. The Municipality3. Residents in the vicinity 4. The national government 5. Interest groups for the preservation of the cultural and historical image of the city 6. Interest groups for senior citizens The feasibility and conceptual design stage (phase 1) 1988-1990 The formal planning stage (phase 1) 1990-1992 The stage of appeals (phase 1) 1992-1993 The feasibility and conceptual design stage (phase 2) 1994-1995 The formal planning stage (phase 2) 1995-1997 The stage of appeals (phase 2) 1998

16 Intressenthantering Utred alla möjliga alternativ för att uppnå projektets mål Definiera tydligt alla positiva och negativa konsekvenser av valt alternativ Uppdatera intressentanalysen genom hela projektet Före varje större beslut i projektet, analysera hur detta påverkar intressenterna

17 Project Stakeholder Management (PSM) Process (Cleland, 1999) Project management team Identify stakeholders Gather information on stakeholders Identify stakeholder mission Determine stakeholder strengths and weaknesses Identify stakeholder strategy Predict stakeholder behaviour Implement Stakeholder Management strategy Planning Organising Motivating Directing Controlling

18 Implementing Stakeholder Management Strategy IDENTIFY STAKEHOLDERS SET OBJECTIVES Informing Education Testing reactions Seeking ideas and Alternative solutions Seeking consensus CHARACTERISTICS One way communication Two way communication Shared decision-making Degree of involvement

19 The Citytunneln Project

20 Kommunikationsledningsplan En beskrivning över insamlandet och lagrandet av olika typer av information En struktur för spridningskanaler över vilken information so går till vem, när och hur En beskrivning av informationen som skall spridas innehållande format, innehåll detaljeringsnivå och vila definitioner som skall användas Tidplaner som visar när information skall spridas Metoder för hur man kommer åt information mellan planerade kommunikationstillfällen Metoder för hur man uppdaterar och preciserar kommunikationsledningsplanen när projektet fortskrider

21 Information Distribution Getting the right information to the right people at the right time and in a useful format is just as important as developing the information in the first place Important considerations include –using technology to enhance information distribution –formal and informal methods for distributing information

22 Performance Reporting Performance reporting keeps stakeholders informed about how resources are being used to achieve project objectives –Status reports describe where the project stands at a specific point in time –Progress reports describe what the project team has accomplished during a certain period of time –Project forecasting predicts future project status and progress based on past information and trends –Status review meetings often include performance reporting

23 Administrative Closure A project or phase of a project requires closure Administrative closure produces –project archives –formal acceptance –lessons learned

24 Suggestions for Improving Project Communications Manage conflicts effectively Develop better communication skills Run effective meetings Use templates for project communications

25 Conflict Handling Modes, in Preference Order Confrontation or problem-solving: directly face a conflict Compromise: use a give-and-take approach Smoothing: de-emphasize areas of differences and emphasize areas of agreement Forcing: the win-lose approach Withdrawal: retreat or withdraw from an actual or potential disagreement

26 Conflicts versus Communication Real versus False conflicts –False conflicts based on misunderstandings and misinterpretations Focus on real conflicts Eliminate false conflicts Good communication is needed to distinguish false conflicts from the real

27 Consensus Building The “Decide-Announce-Defend” approach is unacceptable Seek All-gain solutions Requires face-to-face interaction Reconcile conflicting interests outside of the courts (Consensus Building Institute, www.cbi-

28 The Mutual Gains Approach (Susskind, Field, 1996, Dealing with an Angry Public) Acknowledge concerns of all sides Encourage joint fact finding Offer contingent commitments to minimise impacts if they do occur: promise to compensate knowable but unintended impacts Accept responsibility, admit mistakes, and share power Act in a trustworthy fashion at all times Focus on building long-term relationships

29 Conflict Can Be Good Conflict often produces important results, such as new ideas, better alternatives, and motivation to work harder and more collaboratively Groupthink can develop if there are no conflicting viewpoints Research suggests that task-related conflict often improves team performance, but emotional conflict often depresses team performance

30 Developing Better Communication Skills Companies and formal degree programs for professionals often neglect the importance of developing speaking, writing, and listening skills As organizations become more global, they realize they must invest in ways to improve communication with people from different countries and cultures It takes leadership to improve communication

31 Running Effective Meetings Determine if a meeting can be avoided Define the purpose and intended outcome of the meeting Determine who should attend the meeting Provide an agenda to participants before the meeting Prepare handouts, visual aids, and make logistical arrangements ahead of time Run the meeting professionally Build relationships

32 Developing a Communications Infrastructure A communications infrastructure is a set of tools, techniques, and principles that provide a foundation for the effective transfer of information –Tools include e-mail, project management software, groupware, fax machines, telephones, teleconferencing systems, document management systems, and word processors –Techniques include reporting guidelines and templates, meeting ground rules and procedures, decision-making processes, problem-solving approaches, and conflict resolution and negotiation techniques –Principles include using open dialog and an agreed upon work ethic

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