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Millenium Ecosystem Assessment 2005 Largest assessment of the health of Earth’s ecosystems Experts and Review Process Experts and Review Process –Prepared.

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1 Millenium Ecosystem Assessment 2005 Largest assessment of the health of Earth’s ecosystems Experts and Review Process Experts and Review Process –Prepared by 1360 experts from 95 countries –Includes information from 33 sub-global assessments Governance Governance –Called for by UN Secretary General in 2000 –Authorized by governments through 4 conventions –Partnership of UN agencies, conventions, business, non-governmental organizations

2 Finding 1 –Over the past 50 years, humans have changed ecosystems more rapidly and extensively than in any comparable period of time in human history –This has resulted in a substantial and largely irreversible loss in the diversity of life on Earth Examples: More land was converted to cropland in the 30 years after 1950 than in the 150 years between 1700 and % of the world’s coral reefs were lost and 20% degraded in the last several decades 35% of mangrove area has been lost in the last decades 20% of the world’s coral reefs were lost and 20% degraded in the last several decades 35% of mangrove area has been lost in the last decades

3 Finding 2 –The changes that have been made to ecosystems have contributed to substantial net gains in human well-being and economic development - Since 1960, while population doubled and economic activity increased 6-fold, food production increased 2 ½ times, food price has declined, water use doubled, wood harvest for pulp tripled, hydropower doubled. –But these gains have been achieved at growing costs that, unless addressed, will substantially diminish the benefits that future generations obtain from ecosystems

4 Findings cont. –Approximately 60% (15 out of 24) of the ES evaluated in this assessment are being degraded or used unsustainably –The degradation of ES often causes significant harm to human well-being and represents a loss of a natural asset or wealth of a country –According to the MA, climate change is likely to become the dominant direct driver of biodiversity loss by the end of the century

5 Finding 3 The challenge of reversing the degradation of ecosystems while meeting increasing demands for their services can be partially met under some scenarios that the MA considered but these involve significant changes in policies, institutions and practices, that are not currently under way

6 TEEB “spells out direct links between Biodiversity loss & Ecosystem degradation TEEB “spells out direct links between Biodiversity loss & Ecosystem degradation The economic invisibility of ecosystems and biodiversity is a major cause of losses of the services they provide. The economic invisibility of ecosystems and biodiversity is a major cause of losses of the services they provide. TEEB 2010: The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity

7 TEEB’s main reports Synthesis Business Risks & Opportunities Evaluation & Decision Support for Local and Regional Policy Policy Evaluation for National Policy- Makers Science & Economics Foundations TEEB's mission is to make Nature economically visible

8 TEEB – Recommendations Economic valuations of ecosystem services should be made Economic valuations of ecosystem services should be made National accounts should be upgraded to include value of ecosystem services National accounts should be upgraded to include value of ecosystem services Development of new accounting systems should be given high priority, nationally and internationally Development of new accounting systems should be given high priority, nationally and internationally Ecosystem conservation and restoration should be viewed as an investment Ecosystem conservation and restoration should be viewed as an investment

9 Biobränslen – hjälp eller stjälp EUs mål – 10% ersättning av fossila bränslen 2020 (även USA) EUs mål – 10% ersättning av fossila bränslen 2020 (även USA) Biobränsleanvändningen har ökat exponentiellt globalt, med stora plantager i syd Biobränsleanvändningen har ökat exponentiellt globalt, med stora plantager i syd Alla biobränslen är inte bra för klimatet Alla biobränslen är inte bra för klimatet

10 Biobränsleplantagernas effekter på biologisk mångfald Allvarligaste effekten förlust av naturliga habitat – skogar, savanner m.m.- mångfaldsförlust av stora mått Allvarligaste effekten förlust av naturliga habitat – skogar, savanner m.m.- mångfaldsförlust av stora mått Risk för spridning av invasiva främmande arter Risk för spridning av invasiva främmande arter Stora plantager – vattenbrist, pesticider – påverkar mångfalden i/kring jordbrukslandskapet negativt. Stora plantager – vattenbrist, pesticider – påverkar mångfalden i/kring jordbrukslandskapet negativt.

11 Fattigdomsaspekter Stigande matpriser Stigande matpriser Lokalt producerade flytande biobränslen kan ge nationella och lokala fördelar: minskat tryck på skogen, minskat oljeberoende Lokalt producerade flytande biobränslen kan ge nationella och lokala fördelar: minskat tryck på skogen, minskat oljeberoende Nya jobb Nya jobb Fattigas markrättigheter (landlösa, pastoralister drabbas) Fattigas markrättigheter (landlösa, pastoralister drabbas) ”Land grabbing” ”Land grabbing”

12 CBD/www.cbd.int Launched in Rio, signed/ratified by 168 (of 190) states Launched in Rio, signed/ratified by 168 (of 190) states Main aims: conservation, sustainable use and access and benefit sharing Main aims: conservation, sustainable use and access and benefit sharing Work programmes (Thematic Programmes, cross-cutting issues) Work programmes (Thematic Programmes, cross-cutting issues) Cartagena Protocol (biosafety, 103) Cartagena Protocol (biosafety, 103) ABS protocol ABS protocol

13 Cross-cutting issues Access and Benefit- sharing Access and Benefit- sharing Climate Change and Biological Diversity Climate Change and Biological Diversity Traditional Knowledge (8j) Traditional Knowledge (8j) Biological Diversity and Tourism Biological Diversity and Tourism Economics, Trade and Incentive Measures Economics, Trade and Incentive Measures Impact Assessment Impact Assessment Identification, Monitoring, Identification, Monitoring, Invasive Alien Species Invasive Alien Species Protected Areas Protected Areas Sustainable Use of BD Sustainable Use of BD Technology Transfer and Cooperation Technology Transfer and Cooperation

14 GREEN ECONOMY “Improved human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities” “Improved human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities” Transitioning to a green economy has sound economic and social justification for governments and companies Transitioning to a green economy has sound economic and social justification for governments and companies Many green sectors provide significant opportunities for investment, growth and jobs. Many green sectors provide significant opportunities for investment, growth and jobs.

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