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Made by: Nermina Sarajlic Nermina Sarajlic, Rudbeckianska gymnasiet, Västerås – www.lektion.se.

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En presentation över ämnet: "Made by: Nermina Sarajlic Nermina Sarajlic, Rudbeckianska gymnasiet, Västerås – www.lektion.se."— Presentationens avskrift:

1 Made by: Nermina Sarajlic Nermina Sarajlic, Rudbeckianska gymnasiet, Västerås –

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3 advice (råd, vägledning; a piece of) business (affärer [sådant man sysslar med]) cash (kontanter; some) evidence (bevis; a piece of) furniture (möbler; a piece of) information (a piece of) intelligence (underrättelse/r) interest (ränta; a rate of) knowledge (kunskap) money (pengar) news (nyheter; a piece of) revenue (statsinkomster) stuff (saker; informellt: grejer, prylar) wear (kläder [ofta i betydelsen av utstyrsel];wear some…) sheep (får)

4 När ett subjekt slutar på –y så blir ändelsen automatiskt –ies när det handlar om plural. Baby – babies Granny – grannies Pony – ponies Story – stories WRONG: Ponys, storys

5 A/AN = en, ett (obestämd form) A framför konsonantljud, ex: A cat (c = konsonant) AN framför vokalljud, ex: AN apple (a = vokal) (Det skulle låta konstigt om man sade ”a apple, a , a umbrella” etc.) THE = bestämd form The store = affären (det är den affären som jag gick till) Skillnad: A store = (en) affär

6 När en person eller ett djur äger något skriver man 's (apostrof + s). T.ex The dog's paws (hundens tassar) The old lady's bag (den gamla damens väska) När flera personer eller flera djur äger något skriver man bara ' (apostrof). T.ex The dogs' paws (hundarnas tassar) The old ladies' bags (de gamla damernas väskor)

7 När ägaren är en sak använder man ordet of. T.ex The pages of the book (bokens sidor) The capital of Sweden (Sveriges huvudstad) OBS! Det är bara när det är flera saker eller personer som man sätter ett ’vanligt’ s efter: The Kennedys (Familjen Kennedy) (The/many) cars (bilarna/bilar) (The/many) flowers (blommorna/blommor)

8 Adjectives DESCRIBE the subject (thing/person). Adjectives are comparative  BIG, BIGGER, BIGGEST

9 Adverben beskriver olika typer av verb, adjektiv eller andra adverb I engelskan lägger man ofta till ändelsen -ly på ett adverb. (Förutom med orden hard och fast) Hur vet man om ett ord är adverb eller adjektiv? T.ex beautiful – beautifully careful - carefully extreme – extremely (She looked extremely wild) etc.. Adjektivet good heter well som adverb. Om adjektivet slutar på y med konsonant före, ändras y till i. Ex: Happy – happily Om adjektivet slutar på -le med konsonant före, faller -le bort. Ex: incredible – incredibly Efter verben sound, look, feel, taste och smell använder man adjektivform. Ex. That smells awful. Man skriver alltså aldrig ”awfully”, ”tastly” etc.

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11 BEGINBEGANBEGUN BREAKBROKEBROKEN FREEZEFROZEFROZEN GROWGREWGROWN These verbs are called IRREGULAR VERBS (OREGELBUNDNA VERB)

12 Om verbformen slutar på -y får verbet ändelsen -ied. Cry – cried Spy – spied Fly – flied

13 I HAVE a cat They/We HAVE a cat He/She/It HAS a cat I DO the dishes They/We DO the dishes He/She/It DOES the dishes

14 I HAD a cat They/We HAD a cat He/She/It HAD a cat I DID the dishes They/We DID the dishes He/She/It DID the dishes

15 …används BARA när det handlar om EN person… VERB: WASH  WASHES HE/SHE/IT WASHES THE CAR …och när det är kontinuerligt SHE WASHES THE CAR (EVERYDAY) (I/THEY/WE WASH THE CAR)

16 …ANVÄNDS NÄR DET HÄNDER JUST NU (pågående form) VERB: WASH  WASHING (efter AM, IS eller ARE) I AM WASHING MY CAR (RIGHT NOW/TODAY) SHE IS WASHING HER CAR… THEY ARE WASHING THEIR CAR…

17 …ANVÄNDS OCKSÅ NÄR DET HÄNDE JUST DÅ. VERB: WASH  WASHING (efter WAS eller WERE) I WAS WASHING MY CAR WHEN ALL OF A SUDDEN … SHE WAS WASHING HER CAR… THEY WERE WASHING THEIR CAR…

18 För att visa att man talar om något som ska hända i framtiden använder man WILL eller BE GOING TO. På svenska använder man presens: Jag ska köpa glass Engelska: I will buy ice cream/ I am going to buy ice cream

19 SHE KNEW THEY WOULDN’T LET HER KEEP THE DOG HON VISSTE ATT DE INTE SKULLE LÅTA HENNE BEHÅLLA HUNDEN ”SKULLE” KAN OCKSÅ BLI WAS/WERE GOING TO: I KNEW WHAT HE WAS GOING TO DO JAG VISSTE VAD HAN SKULLE/TÄNKTE GÖRA ’WOULD’ KAN DRAS IHOP TILL ´d: I SAID I’D THINK ABOUT IT JAG SADE ATT JAG SKULLE TÄNKA PÅ SAKEN

20 THE DOG WOULD SNUGGLE DOWN ON THE SOFA HUNDEN BRUKADE KURA IHOP SIG PÅ SOFFAN

21 I SHOULD REALLY BUY THAT HAT JAG BORDE VERKLIGEN KÖPA DEN DÄR HATTEN YOU SHOULD DO THAT! DU BORDE/BÖR GÖRA DET!

22 I CAN DO THE HOMEWORK JAG KAN GÖRA LÄXAN I COULD HELP YOU BUT I DON’T WANT TO JAG SKULLE KUNNA HJÄLPA DIG MEN JAG VILL INTE

23 I AM (he/she/it) IS singular (they/we) ARE plural

24 I DO/DON’T (he/she/it) DOES/DOESN’T (they/we) DO/DON’T DO/DON’T/DOESN’T = GÖR

25 I BUY DRIVE (originalformen av verbet)* (he/she/it) BUYS DRIVES (they/we) BUY DRIVE*

26 Swedish allows heavy ADVERBIALS between SUBJECT & VERB. NÄR HAN EFTER FEM ÅRS FRÅNVARO KOM TILLBAKA TILL SVERIGE, S A V HADE MYCKET FÖRÄNDRATS. English is more sensitive about putting too much information between S & V WHEN HE CAME BACK TO SWEDEN AFTER FIVE YEARS OF ABSENCE, S V A MUCH HAD CHANGED.

27 English doesn’t allow a heavy ADVERBIAL between VERBS, but Swedish does. KARL HADE UNDER MÅNGA LÅNGA KVÄLLAR GRUBBLAT ÖVER VAD SOM V A V GICK FEL. DURING SEVERAL LONG NIGHTS, KARL HAD PONDERED OVER WHAT A V V WENT WRONG. In English, ADVERBIALS should always be put first or last in a sentence.

28 When phrases come between the SUBJECT and VERB, sometimes we are confused by what VERB-form we should use. THE HOUSE ON THE HILL UNDER THE TREES (LOOKS, LOOK) BEAUTIFUL THIS WINTER. The SUBJECT that has the most focus should help you choose the right VERB-form. THE HOUSE ON THE HILL UNDER THE TREES LOOKS BEAUTIFUL THIS WINTER. It is not about the subject closer to the verb that always is in focus! In this case - TREES

29 THE CAT AND THE DOG (EATS, EAT) FOOD. Although both cat and dog are singular words, the plural verb EAT is correct because two singular subjects have been added together by AND. THE CAT AND THE DOG EAT FOOD.

30 SJÄLVSTÄNDIGA: Mine Yours His Hers Ours Yours Theirs That is mine! This is hers!  WRONG: That is mine pencil This is hers car

31 SOMEANYSOMEBODY (SOMEONE) SOMETHINGANYTHING SOMEWHERE NOTHING NOBODYNO ONE ANYBODY (ANYONE)

32 POSITIVE: SOMEThere are some cookies left SOMETHINGSure, I think I have something here SOMEBODYSomebody’s at the door NEGATIVE: ANYThere aren’t any cookies left ANYTHINGI don’t have anything here NOBODYNobody’s at the door NO ONENo one wants to be with me

33 These can also be used in questions: DO YOU HAVE SOME MILK? (there is still some milk left) DO YOU HAVE ANY MILK? (there is a small chance that there is any milk left) DID YOU MEET SOMEONE AT THE PARTY? (there’s a chance that you met a friend there) DID YOU MEET ANYONE AT THE PARTY? (there were almost no people there)

34 WHO -Used only when you talk about people: I know a girl who is a great soccer player. WHICH -Used only when you talk about animals and things: I live in a house, which is really nice. WHOM -Used when you connect someone to somebody/something (rarely used) The twins, of whom she is related to…

35 The boy who played on his computer drank milk  The boy that played on the computer drank milk

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37 You should put a comma before a person’s name if you're talking directly to them… Come here, Lily! …or when you are introducing or talking about a person. This is my boyfriend, Tobias. My boyfriend, Tobias, called me today.

38 If the commas are left out, the first subject in the sentence takes on the function of a modifier. That is, it describes the second subject: My boyfriend Tobias called me today.  What kind of Tobias? The boyfriend kind. Leaving in the commas serves to help the reader pick up that there are 2 subjects in the sentence  BOYFRIEND & TOBIAS Not: “BOYFRIENDTOBIAS”

39 RESTRICTIVE SENTENCE: My brother who’s abroad has sent me a letter. (My other brothers haven’t) NON-RESTRICTIVE SENTENCE: My brother, who’s abroad, has sent me a letter. (He is the only brother I have) Put commas if you want to add extra information about a thing or person.

40 Snakes which are poisonous should be avoided. Snakes, which are poisonous, should be avoided. The 1:st sentence implies that only some snakes are poisonous – that is true. The 2:nd implies that all snakes are poisonous – that is false.

41 For most, the year is already finished. Use a comma to avoid confusion. For most the year is already finished. Outside the garden was cluttered with hundreds of broken branches. Outside, the garden was cluttered with hundreds of broken branches.

42 Power-pointen är gjord av Nermina Sarajlic, engelsklärare.


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