From the appropriations directions for 2009 Monitoring SSM should have good knowledge about radiation levels in the environment, as well as good knowledge about changes in these levels, either caused by natural processes, new or changed human activities, or accidents.
Euratom treaty, article 35/36 Article 35 of the Euratom Treaty requires each Member State to establish the facilities necessary to carry out continuous monitoring of the level of radioactivity in the air, water and soil Recommendation to monitor the following: Airborne particulates surface water water intended for human consumption milk mixed diet.
Helcom and Ospar conventions Helcom recommends to sample water sediment, fish, aquatic plants and benthic animals (additional samples are also recommended). Agreed within Ospar to sample water and molluscs.
3 types of monitoring Early warning and emergency preparedness Local monitoring at nuclear facilities National monitoring
National monitoring Airborne particles Surface water Marine water Marine sediments Marine fish Moose Reindeer Milk Mixed diet Drinking water Whole body measurements Soils and crops Radon in indoor air Ground gamma radiation
Average dose to the Swedish population Radon in indoor air Cosmic radiation Potassium in the body Ground and building materials Naturally occuring radionuclides in the diet Cs-137, primarily from the Chernobyl accident Medical diagnosis
Beräknad teoretisk fördelning av de svenska lungcancerfallen år 2000 mellan olika orsaker och mellan grupperna aldrig-rökare och rökare (McGale och Darby, 2006). Rökning ej radon Radon och rökning Radon ej rökning Övriga orsaker Totalt 19123101066582986 Aldrig- rökare --58362420 Rökare1912310482962566
Short term evaluation Wallberg och Moberg (2002)
6 Airfilter stations Glassfiber filter 0.3 m² Air sampling rate 1 000 m³/hr Continuous sampling, filter changed twice weekly, no measurement at sampling point 137 Cs, 7 Be and other y- emitters Detection limit 0.1 – 0.3 µBq/m³ 137 Cs at 100 000 m³ air
Surface and drinking water Sampling of 10 – 20 litres at 6 water treatment plants (after treatment = drinking water) twice a year. At two plants also raw water (surface water). Water passes through filter of copperferrocyanat, 90 % of 137 Cs adsorbed. Detection limit 0,003 Bq/l 137 Cs 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 3 H total-alpha, total-beta, 234,238 U, 226 Ra,
Mixed diet 3 hospital kitchens, twice a year All food served during 24h, fluids and solids treated separately. Detection limit 0,2 Bq/day (intake rate) 137 Cs, 0,04Bq/day 90 Sr.
Moose and roe deer 137 Cs 2 areas in 2007 approx. 500 samples Detection limit 20 Bq/kg fresh weight.
Marine sediments 137 Cs 16 stations open sea samples every 5 years 25 cm are sampled in 1 cm layers, analysis sometimes on combined layers. Detection limit <6Bq/kg dry weight