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Environmental monitoring Pål Andersson

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En presentation över ämnet: "Environmental monitoring Pål Andersson"— Presentationens avskrift:

1 environmental monitoring Pål Andersson

2 From the appropriations directions for 2009 Monitoring SSM should have good knowledge about radiation levels in the environment, as well as good knowledge about changes in these levels, either caused by natural processes, new or changed human activities, or accidents.

3 Euratom treaty, article 35/36 Article 35 of the Euratom Treaty requires each Member State to establish the facilities necessary to carry out continuous monitoring of the level of radioactivity in the air, water and soil Recommendation to monitor the following: Airborne particulates surface water water intended for human consumption milk mixed diet.

4 Helcom and Ospar conventions Helcom recommends to sample water sediment, fish, aquatic plants and benthic animals (additional samples are also recommended). Agreed within Ospar to sample water and molluscs.

5 3 types of monitoring Early warning and emergency preparedness Local monitoring at nuclear facilities National monitoring

6 External gamma radiation

7 European stations (28 in Sweden)

8 1000 m 3 /h 56cm x 56cm Airborne particles 6 stations Operated by the Swedish defence research agency, FOI

9 Reference Measurements 2 instruments in each municipality reference points in each municipality Approx. 900 ref. pts totally

10 SummerWinter

11 National monitoring Airborne particles Surface water Marine water Marine sediments Marine fish Moose Reindeer Milk Mixed diet Drinking water Whole body measurements Soils and crops Radon in indoor air Ground gamma radiation


13 Cesium-137 on particles in outdoor air (µBq/m3) Cs-137 [µBq/m3]

14 Cesium-137 (Bq/m3) Sea water

15 Sediment



18 Milk


20 Mixed diet, Cs-137 (Bq/person and day)


22 Cs-137 Whole body content (Bq/kg)

23 Average dose to the Swedish population Radon in indoor air Cosmic radiation Potassium in the body Ground and building materials Naturally occuring radionuclides in the diet Cs-137, primarily from the Chernobyl accident Medical diagnosis

24 Berries Vaccinium vitis-idaea Vaccinium myrtillus Rubus idaeus Rubus chamaemorus

25 Rubus Chamaemorus Vaccinium vitis-idaea

26 Roe deer

27 Soil

28 Kosmisk strålning dosrat vid marknivån ca 45 nSv/h


30 Svamp

31 Renkött

32 129 I i vattendrag [µBq l -1 ] Storskalig spridning av 129 I från LaHague och Sellafield 129 I i ytvatten [µBq l -1 ]

33 Sedime nt






39 Beräknad teoretisk fördelning av de svenska lungcancerfallen år 2000 mellan olika orsaker och mellan grupperna aldrig-rökare och rökare (McGale och Darby, 2006). Rökning ej radon Radon och rökning Radon ej rökning Övriga orsaker Totalt Aldrig- rökare Rökare

40 Dos från kalium i kroppen


42 0,10 0,20






48 Tabell Cs i svamp från Heby kommun (kBq kg -1 torrvikt) Medelvärde(Min-Max)Antal prover Violettfotad slemspindelskivling207( )24 Rödskivig kanelspindelskivling191(27-902)33 Kanelspindelskivling184(53-281)3 Rödbandad spindelskivling160(93-248)8 Rynkad tofsskivling115(37-332)13 Spindelskivling98(21-203)9 Sandsopp85(29-463)101 Pluggskivling78(18-185)16 Honungsspindelskivling53(8-104)5 Pepparriska50(2-321)53 Gråriska47(9-153)8 Aprikosspindelskivling46(25-82)4 Storkremla46(2-238)39 Skogsriska44(23-101)4 Fjällig taggsvamp44(37-51)2 Trattkantarell31(10-82)19 Tegelkremla31(12-115)27 Vinkremla25(1-48)5 Kantarell20(0-165)31 Föränderlig tofsskivling12(1-40)20 Fårticka7(2-27)29 Björksopp7(0-14)10 Brödticka5(2-12)15 Karl Johan5(1-13)11 Citrongul slemskivling4(3-5)3 Stinkkremla2(1-4)3 Röd flugsvamp1(1-1)2



51 Long term trends

52 Short term evaluation Wallberg och Moberg (2002)

53 6 Airfilter stations Glassfiber filter 0.3 m² Air sampling rate m³/hr Continuous sampling, filter changed twice weekly, no measurement at sampling point 137 Cs, 7 Be and other y- emitters Detection limit 0.1 – 0.3 µBq/m³ 137 Cs at m³ air

54 Surface and drinking water Sampling of 10 – 20 litres at 6 water treatment plants (after treatment = drinking water) twice a year. At two plants also raw water (surface water). Water passes through filter of copperferrocyanat, 90 % of 137 Cs adsorbed. Detection limit 0,003 Bq/l 137 Cs 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 3 H total-alpha, total-beta, 234,238 U, 226 Ra,

55 Mixed diet 3 hospital kitchens, twice a year All food served during 24h, fluids and solids treated separately. Detection limit 0,2 Bq/day (intake rate) 137 Cs, 0,04Bq/day 90 Sr.

56 Moose and roe deer 137 Cs 2 areas in 2007 approx. 500 samples Detection limit 20 Bq/kg fresh weight.

57 Marine sediments 137 Cs 16 stations open sea samples every 5 years 25 cm are sampled in 1 cm layers, analysis sometimes on combined layers. Detection limit <6Bq/kg dry weight

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