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VÄLKOMMNA till EUHA 17 - ’B-uppsatskursen’ Introduktion 2012-05-04.

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En presentation över ämnet: "VÄLKOMMNA till EUHA 17 - ’B-uppsatskursen’ Introduktion 2012-05-04."— Presentationens avskrift:

1 VÄLKOMMNA till EUHA 17 - ’B-uppsatskursen’ Introduktion



4  The research problem: * ett epistemologiskt problem, ex: en kritisk ställning mot ett fenomen, en empirisk undersökning, applicering av en teori, m.m. * formulerad på 2-6 rader = intressant och tydligt, genomförbart, akademiskt relevant, anger en handlingsplan, att förklara/förstå, etiskt försvarbar

5 Analyzing texts about EU politics & culture = “simple methodological tools..” Analyzing texts about EU politics & culture = “simple methodological tools..” Supranational or intergovernmental..? Centre or periphery Leftist or Rightist..? Focus on History or the Future Centralization or decentralization..? Integration or federalization..? Political pessimism or optimism..? 1.

6 Further theoretical reflections on Historical Change ‘Real-Politics’ The Power of Identities & Images The power of Ideologies Individuals & collective actors Political / Economic / Cultural Interests Political elites & Civil societies Actors & structures HISTORICAL CHANGE..

7 The idea of the state The institutional base The physical base Barry Buzan’s ’model of the State’ Can we use it in relation to studies of the EU…? 2.

8 EU’s and its member states (see: Bomberg ch.4 = ”Six Determining Features” Entry Date Integration preferences Economic Ideology State structure Wealth Size…

9 Vetenskapsteortiska begrepp * Ontologi och Epistemologi *Paradigm * Positivism och Hermeneutik *Operationalisering * Intersubjektivitet * Kontextualisering * Kontextualisering

10 Det är teorin som avgör vad vi kan observera Man kan inte lära sig mycket av historien, men ändå en hel del mera än av samhällsvetenskapliga teorier

11 Reflections on historical change.. Let’s start with two ”great political speeches”.. Ronald Reagan: = "tear down this wall“ Martin Luther King = “I have a dream”

12 ”Reflections on the ISMS” Liberalism Conservatism Marxism Cosmopolitanism feminism Constructivism ……… *Ideas *Ideologies *Political projects *Grand theories *??

13 CONSTRUCTIVISMREALISM KEY ACTORS Individuals, collective identities International system, states VIEW OF THE INDIVIDUAL Major unit, especially elites Power-seeking, selfish, antagonistic VIEW OF THE STATE State behavior shaped by elite beliefs; social identity Power-seeking; unitary actor; following its national interest VIEW OF THE INTERNA- TIONAL SYSTEM Nothing explained by the international structures alone Anarchy; stability in balance of power system BELIEFS ABOUT CHANGE Explanation of major changes Low change potential; slow structural change

14 MARXISMLIBERALISM KEY ACTORS Social classes, transnational elites, Multinational corporations States, NGOs, IOs VIEW OF THE INDIVIDUAL Actions determined by economic class Basically good: Capable of cooperating VIEW OF THE STATE Agent of the international capitalist system Not an autonomous actor; having many interests VIEW OF THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM Highly stratified; dominated by the capitalist system Interdependence among actors; international society; anarchy BELIEFS ABOUT CHANGE Need for radical change Probable; a desirable process

15 METOD OLOGI Innehållsanalys Diskursanalys Kvalitativa Intervjuer Argumentationsanalys Fallstudier och komparationer Historiskt perspektiv, källor och källkritik

16 Argumentationsanalys Hänvisningsmönster (ex: till erfarenhet, lag, moraliska kategorier, …) Logiska framställningar Känslornas betydelse Framställningens struktur Retorikens struktur Vad som sägs/skrivs/visas men också HUR…

17 Innehållsanalys Huvudbudskapet = det manifesta innehållet = VAD? = Vilka idéer/begrepp ”Att räkna ord…” Relationsmönster = Vad i relation till Vad? Att fånga meningsbärande enheter = begrepp meningar, fraser Metodologiskt kategoriseringsarbete

18 Narrative Analysis = What is a narrative? Not every text is a narrative: a “narrative” comprises sequence and consequence: events are selected, organised, connected, and evaluated as meaningful for an audience. Narratives: a way to make sense of the world..

19 Elements of a narrative Time-sequence Characters Plot Different definitions: an entire ‘life story’, as it emerges from interviews, observation, and/or documents brief, topically specific stories organised around characters, setting, and plot

20 Visual analysis (av narrativ) Complements the traditional narrative analysis (word-based: interview transcripts, ethnographic observations in field notes, letters, documents) with visual elements Covers several visual genres: photography, painting, collage, video, incl. Video diaries Different locations: museums, public spaces (street art, grafitti, monuments), private displays, art

21 Visual analysis 2 Images have a higher capacity to communicate or awaken emotions – enables others to see and feel like the self Images are not documentaries: they are subjective Images do not testify for accuracy; they must be subject to interpretation and contextualization

22 Comparative analysis Throughout your academic career, you'll be asked to write papers in which you compare and contrast two things: two texts, two theories, two historical figures (…) "Classic" compare-and-contrast papers, in which you weight A and B equally, may be about two similar things that have crucial differences (…) or two similar things that have crucial differences, yet turn out to have surprising commonalities (…) REF: Kerry Walk, for the Writing Center at Harvard University,

23 Comparative analysis Organizational Scheme. Your introduction will include your frame of reference, grounds for comparison, and thesis. There are two basic ways to organize the body of your paper. In text-by-text, you discuss all of A, then all of B. In point-by-point, you alternate points about A with comparable points about B. REF: Kerry Walk, for the Writing Center at Harvard University,


25 Discourse analytical concepts: 3. metaphors ”flying significants” ”nodal points” Orders of discourses Organizational words

26 Integration Successive waves of both geographical expansion (enlargement) and closer collaboration in economical and political areas (deepening) Successive waves of both geographical expansion (enlargement) and closer collaboration in economical and political areas (deepening) These two processes are two aspects of the same phenomenon: integration These two processes are two aspects of the same phenomenon: integration

27 There will be no peace in Europe (Jean Monnet if the States rebuild themselves on the basis of national sovereignty, with its implications of prestige politics and economic protection (...). The countries of Europe are not strong enough individually to be able to guarantee prosperity and social development for their peoples. The States of Europe must therefore form a federation or a European entity… (Jean Monnet 1943)

28 We hope to see a Europe where men of every country will think as much of being a European as of belonging to their native land, and that without losing any of their love and loyalty of their birthplace. (Winston Churchill 1948)


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