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Psychology A kurs Welcome everyone!!!.

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1 psychology A kurs Welcome everyone!!!

2 What is psychology really?
The scientific study of behavior and ” the mind” Behavior: Actions and responses that one can observe What is the “mind”? Does it exist? Mind: Internal processes, such as thoughts and feelings, that can not be observed. These internal processes must be deduced and assumed from actions and behavior that we can observe. Observation is the key and that which makes Psychology a science and not a philosophy.

3 Exempel på psychologyska frågeställningar
How do we learn? How do we remember? What causes family violence? How does language affect our reality? What causes alcoholism? What is stress and how can we control it? Why are certain people xenophobic? Why do some people have dysfunctional (abnormal) behavior? How do we define normal in the first place? How does our mind affect our biological body (i.e. with stress)?

4 The goal of Psychology To explain human and other animal behavior
To understand the reasons for the behavior To predict how humans and animals behave under certain conditions To change and control behavior by understanding the reasons for behavior. To apply psychological knowledge to improve the human experience.

5 But……….there are problems.
When one trys to find the causes of behavior…, How can we know our theories are correct? Experiment? Experiment on what? Experiment how? What is proof and how is something proven? Are their other viable explanations? The mind is extremely complex. How can we study it? How can the mind actually be accessed?

6 Psychology focuses on Biology (biological make-up) Mental processes
Learned experiences Cultural factors that influence the individual How the social environment affects the individual

7 Psychological Perspectives
A “perspective” is a starting point from which one makes fundamental and foundational assumptions about the causes of human behavior. Which means… Psychodynamic perspective Behavioralism/ Learning perspective Humanism/ Humanist perspective Cognitive perspective Social-cultural perspective/Social Psychology Biological perspective

8 Psykodynamiska perspectiveet
Sigmund Freud ( ) Wien Psykoanalys: analysen of interna and till mestadels omedvetna processor Id, Ego, Super ego Förtryckta impulser etc.

9 behavior perspectiveet
Pavlov (Ryssland) Watson Skinner ( ) Tabula Rasa Man måste studera observerbart behavior, inte interna processor som man inte kan veta ngt om. All behavior är lärd Man kan påverka behavior via olika responsen till en behavior.

10 Humanistisk perspective
Abraham Maslow ( ) Focus på fri vilja, infödda tendenser till utveckling, and människans försök att hitta meningen med sitt liv. I en bra miljö utvecklas vi till välanpassade individer. I en dålig miljö är våra utvecklingstendenser frustrerad, and vi utvecklas inte fullt ut. Mycket fokus på hur vi kan ta eget ansvar and förbättra vår egen situation.

11 Kognitiv perspective Hur vi iakttar, organisera, and magasinera information i vår mind, and hur mentala processor påverkar vår behavior. Vi är information processorer and problem lösare, and våra handlingar styrs of tankar and planering. Iakttagelse förmåga Minne Mentala kartor (schemata)

12 Varför?

13 and hur?

14 Social Psychology We are social creatures
We are part of a culture. Our culture steers our actions and values. It helps create our concepts of identity and shapes our basic understanding of reality. Social psychology studies how our social environment and cultural learning affects our behavior, thoughts, and feelings. Culture: Lasting values, beliefs, behavior, and traditions that are shared by a large group of people and passed on to new generations.

15 Social Psychology contd.
Norms: Rules (often unwritten) which specify which behavior is acceptable for members in a certain group. Socialization: The process by which culture is transferred to new members, and how these members internalize the culture.

16 Biologiska perspectiveet
Hur hjärnans and andra kroppsliga processor styr behaviort. Neurovetenskap: (fysiologisk psychology): Studerar hur hjärnprocessor and andra fysiologiska funktioner ligger till grund för våra behavior, sensoriska upplevelser, emotioner and tankar. genetics and behavior Evolution and behavior

17 The Psychodynamic Perspective.
Sigmund Freud ( ) Wien High and middle class patients The interpretation of Dreams

18 The psychodynamic perspectve
Looks for causes of behofiour in a dynamic mix of internal energies that are in conflict with one another. A theory on the development of our personality. The most fundamental premise is that it is a study of the mind. It is (was) a method to treat people with psychological problems. Freud was convinced that our ”unconscious” affected us greatly in all aspects of daily life.

19 Our Consciousness according to Freud
Preconscious Subconscious

20 The 3 part personality structure
Id: The central core and deepest parts of our personality. The only part that is with us from birth. Source of all psychic energy. It continually seeks immediate gratification and does not take reality into consideration. ”I want Take!!!” But Id can not gratify itself because it does not hofe contact with the outer world.

21 Ego Develops because Id can not contact the outer world.
Its job is to hofe contact with the outerworld and because of this it works primarily on a conscious level. It works by the ’reality principle’ meaning that it sees reality and can therfore decide when Id can be gratified .

22 Superego The moral and ethical ”arm” of the personality.
Should develop by around 4-5 years of age. Thetraditional values of society. These become internalised by the child through identification with the parents. At first, control of Id is external...then it turns into ”self-control” Superego main job is to control the impulses of Id.

23 Ego’s job Is in the midle of the storm between Id’s impulses and Superego’s internalised social values. Ego must find a compromise between these to which is suitable for and adapted to reality. In this way the Ego is the CEO of the personality.

24 Conflict, Angst, and Defence.
The dynamics of the personality mean a constant conflict between Id’s impulses and Superego’s limitations Observable behofiour is most often a compromise between these things (one Ego) has made. When Ego experiences impulses that become increasingly uncontrolable angst is a result. Stress is one symptom of this. This is called psychic energy. Ego must find a way to deal with the problem..... Such as

25 Defence Mechanisms When the Ego can no longer deal with the conflicts and lower the levels of angst, Ego can create a defence mechanism. Defence mechanism: A subconscious mental process which denies and/or alters reality. There are 8 Freudian Defence Mechanisms: Repression, Denial, Displacement, Intellectualisation, Projection, Rationalisation, Reaction Formation, Sublimation Det finns 8 stycken enligt Freud: Förtryck, Förneka, Förskjutning, Intellektualiserandet, Projektion, Rationalisering, Reaktion Bildning, Sublimering

26 Defense Mechanisms Repression: When angst creating impulses or memories are moved to the subconscious mind. Denial: When a person does not recognize or admit the negative angst creating impulses and memories. Can entail both events and emotions. Dispacement: An unacceptable impulse is repressed then released towards a more suitable target. Intellectualisation: the feeling associated with a negative emotional event is repressed. Afterwards the situation is approached as if it was something intellectually interesting.

27 Defense Mechanisms Projection: An unacceptable impulse that is repressed and then it is projected onto other people. Rationalisation: When one creates false but plausable reasons or excuses for angst creating behofiour or an event that has already happened. Reaction Formation: When an angst creating impulse is repressed and the psychic energy is released in an exaggerated behofiour that shows the opposite Sublimination: repressed impulses that are released as acceptible social activity.

28 Which one is this?

29 Psychosexual development.
Stages of Psychosexual development: Stages during which Id’s search for gratification is focused on specific parts of the body known in Freudian terms as ”erogenous zones” Five Stages: Oral Stage, Anal Stage, Phalic Stage, Latent stage, Genital Stage. Fixation: When, on account of too much or too little of some aspect during development, one fixates (or stops) at a specific stage. Impulses are focused on a specific zone. Regression: When one reverts( returns) to a previous psychosexual phase

30 Psykosexuell utveckling. Fasen.
Oral stage: When gratification is focused on the mouth. Anal stage: When gratification is focused on elimination (toilet) Can lead to problems in adulthood such anal behofiour Phalic stage: When gratification is focused on the sexual organs. Oedipus complex: Boys want to hofe sex with their mothers and see their farther as a rival. Electra komplex: The girls variant, she wants to hofe children with her father. She blames her mother for the fact that she (the daughter) does not hofe a penis. Very controfersial (in Freud’s time...dismissed as baseless now).

31 Fasen Latent Stage: Sexuality ”rests” for about 6 years
Genital stadiet: If everything has gone ”right” according to Freud at the early teenage years one turns out to be a well adjusted ”normal” person with a traditional sexual orientation.

32 Problem med detta teori?
Non-Scientific It can explain everything Bound to the day’s traditional victorian value system I.e. Defining a normal sexual orientation The psychosexual development stages No proof etc.

33 Men… Important for developmental theories
Important for the concept of the subconscious and bringing to light the fact that unseen mental processes happen which we are not completely aware of. Psychotherapy His theories hofe been modified and developed.

34 behaviorperspectiveet

35 behaviorperspectiveet
Uppkom delvis pga kritik of Freud Hur vi lär oss. Varför vi lär oss Lärandet: en process genom vilken erfarenhet ger en relativt bestående förändring i ett organismer behavior and förmåga. behavior psykologer antar det finns lagar som styr hur vi lär oss. Det vill upptäcka dessa. Tabula Rasa : En central antagande.

36 Lärandet and evolution.
Det flesta komplexa organismer kan lära sig, and måste lära sig minst 3 viktiga saker: De måste veta vilka händelser är and inte är viktig för dess överlevnad and välbefinnande. Vilken stimuli signalerar att en viktig händelse ska ske Om dess responsen producerar positiva eller negativa konsekvenser Habituation: (tillvänjning): Minskad styrka på en respons från en återupprepad stimulus. Lärandet kan inte överföras till nästa generation, men en lärd behavior kan leder till en mer framgångsrik behavior som främja en art.

37 Klassisk Betingning Ivan Poflov
Klassisk Betingning: Att associera en stimuls med en annan. En stimulus framkallar en respons som tidigare hade bara kommit från en annan stimulus.

38 Klassisk Betingning Poflovs hundar

39 Grundprinciper Ackvisition: tiden när en respons är lärd.
Först har man en Neutral Stimulus (NS) NS framkallar ingen respons. Men om man tar t.ex. mat and sättar den framför en hund kommer det att salivera. Detta reflex heter en Obetingad Respons OBR görs UTAN tidigare lärandet.

40 Grundprinciper Sen är ljudet and maten parade.
Efter flera omgångar kommer hunden att salivera när ljudet görs and utan mat i närheten. Ljudet då heter en Betingad Stimulus (BS) BS är en stimulus som genom association med en OBS framkallar en respons som liknar den original OBR and när hunden saliverar för ljudet, är detta respons kallad en Betingad Respons eller BR BR: En respons framkallad of en BS

41 Som detta

42 Grundprinciper Utrotning: när BS ges om and om igen men utan en OBS. BR blir allt svagare and till slut försvinner totalt. Spontant återhämtning: en återkommande of en tidigare utrotad BR efter en viloperiod and utan ny betingning

43 Så ser det ut

44 Little Albert

45 Operant Betingning Operant Betingning: lärande där behavior är påverkad of konsekvenserna som följer. Watson BF Skinner Viktiga skillnader mellan Klassisk and Operant betingning.

46 Klassisk and operant Viktiga skillnader mellan Klassisk and Operant betingning. 1. i klassisk betingning: en organism lärar sig en association mellan två stimuli, i operant betingning en organism lär sig en association mellan behavior and konsekvenserna. 2. Klassisk betingning fokuserar på framkallade behaviort, operant fokuserar på ofsiktlig behavior

47 Operant Betingning 3 saker behövs för att detta ska ske:
1. Antecedent. Stimuli som finns innan behavior 2. behavior 3. Konsekvenserna Man skapar en samband mellan behavior and konsekvens.

48 Förstärkning and straff
Positiv förstärkning: när en respons är förstärkt men en stimulus efter responsen. Detta stimulus är något som den som gör responsen tycker om. Kan tänkas på som ”belöning” Själva stimulus som kommer efter heter en Positive Reinforcer (positiv förstärkare) Kan ni tänka på några positive reinforcers? Primär and sekundär förstärkare: Primär är saker som en organism behöver naturligt and funkar som förstärkare eftersom de tillfredsställer en organism.

49 Forts. Primär and sekundär förstärkare: Primär är saker som en organism behöver naturlgt and funkar som förstärkare eftersom de tillfredställer en organism. Mat, vatten osv. Sekundär förstärkare blir förstärkare gen0m association med primära förstärkare. Som pengar, bra betyg osv.

50 Förstärkning and straff
Negativ Förstärkning: En respons som är förstärkt genom borttagning of en stimulus som upplevs negativt of en organism. Själva stimulus heter en negative reinforcer, eller negativ förstärkare. Det är inte straff.

51 Forts. Straff/Punishment: En respons är försvagat of stimulus som följer. Respons kostnad: En respons är försvagat genom att ta bort en stimulus som en organism ser som positiv. Exempel?

52 Shaping and Chaining Shaping (formning): En metod som förstärker successiva steg mot en mål. Som t.ex. att få någon att leka på en klätterställning eller som råttan i videon. Chaining : (Länka) förstära en respons med möjligheten att göra den nästa respons.

53 Forts Operant generalisation : (Generalisering): När en respons sker för en ny stimulus som är lik den original stimulus. T.ex. alla kokplattor eller rädsla för alla hundar när man har blivit biten. Operant Discriminering: när en respons sker till en stimulus men inte en annan. T.ex polis and hur man kör bil. En kraftig undersökningsverktyg.

54 Förstärknings schema Fixed Ratio: (FR)Förstärkning efter en bestämnd nummer of försök. Variable Ration: (VR)Förstärkning efter en varierad nummer of försök (ca genomsnittlig) Fixed Interval: (FI) förstärkning efter en bestämd tid. Variable Interval : (VI) förstärkning efter en varierad genomsnittlig tid. Vilken tror du får flesta reponser? Varför?


56 Token economies. Immediate preformance feedback Self-paced learning

57 Biological Perspective
How the brain and other physiological processes affect and govern behavior. Neuroscience: (Physiological Psychology): Studies how the brain’s processes and other physiological functions are the basis for our behavior, sensory experiences, emotions and our thoughts. Genetics and behavior Evolution and behavior

58 Evolution and behavior
Question: How much of our behavior is preprogrammed to ensure our survival? Evolutionary Psychology: How behavior and abilities hofe developed to adapt us to our environment in a way that ensures our survival. Biologically based mechanisms: take in information, processes it, and creates a response. I.e. speech, emotions, mating, aggression, altruism

59 Evolution of adaptive mechanisms
Evolution: A change over time in the frequency of certain genes in a given population (and the characteristics they produce). Natural selection: properties that raise the possibility of survival (and subsequent reproduction) have a greater probability of remaining in a population. With time the characteristic becomes more and more common within the population. Adaptation : Makes it possible for an organism to meet the demands from the environment and as a result raises the chances of survival and reproduction.

60 Adaption Broad adaptation: Learning a language, continuing behavior that is rewarded and avoiding behavior that is punished. (it’s not the behavior that is important , but the fact we are hard wired to work in this manner). Specific adaptations: Exist to solve environment specific problems such as securing safe food, avoiding spiders and snakes, cooperating wit certain people.

61 Adaptations that make people people
Language: everyone has an inborn ability to learn a language...even deaf people. Language is central to human thought and communication. We are programmed to recognize and respond to human faces arranged in a specific way. (Frantz 1961). When only a week old, babies can differentiate between 2 and 3 objects (indicates a primitive mathematic ability (Geary 1995) Social anxiety (fear of social disapproval) can be seen as an adaptive Mechanism (Baumeister and Tice, 1990)


63 Adaptations cont. Cooperation and “belonging” to a group is central for our survival. We have an exceptionally strong need to belong to a group and are afraid of being rejected or cast out of the group. Altruism: People have a tendency to help others (especially younger people). This tendency increases with closer relations. Basic emotions are universal to all human culture. Violence: A man’s game? Man-man violence 30-1 compared to woman-woman violence. Hunting, sexual etc.

64 Adaptations continued
Altruism: Helping others with little obvious benefit to one self (Bernstein Et. Al 1994). Increases with relatedness More prevalent when the target of the altruism is a child Reasoning s that by helping the in-group it secures one’s own gene pool Universality of Emotion such is smiling, expression of anger etc. Violence: A man’s game? Man-man violence 30-1 compared to woman-woman violence. Hunting, sexual etc.

65 Problem with this theory?
Circular reasoning. Minimizes the influence of the social environment on the individual. Non-falsifiable. Can be used as an excuse for non-adaptive behaviour.

66 Genetics and behavior How much of our behavior is hereditary?
Genotype: genetic programming of a organism Phenotype: an organisms observable characteristics

67 Studying behavior and genetics
Premises: 50% genetic material from each parent. Siblings: 50% possibility of having the same gene Half-Sibling: 25% possibility How do genetic make-up and environment affect our behavior? Problem: How do we distinguish between genetic influence and environmental influence?


69 Adoption and Twins Heritability coefficient: estimates the extent to which the differences, or variation, in a specific characteristic within a group of people can be attributed to genetic factors. Adoption studies: when people who were adopted early in life are compared on some characteristic with both their biological parents and with their adoptive parents (with whom they sharn no genetic material). Twin studies: compare trait similarities in identical and fraternal twins. Monozygotic twins share 100% DNA, Dizygotic 50% like normal siblings

70 Det visar sig att:

71 and…

72 Neuroscience Neurons and axons Synapse Neuro transmitter Threshold
Signals Synapse Neuro transmitter Threshold Inhibitory and excitatory MAO Specific NT and behavior Effects of drugs








80 Good Sites

81 Axon


83 Crucial Terminology Resting Potential: negative ions inside cell compared to positive ions outside the cell. Neurons special in that sudden extreme changes can occur in the inside-outside voltage differential Action Potential: The inside differential shifts from -70 millivolts to +40 millivolts. This shift is termed AP Threshold: To cause this action the stimulus must reach response threshold.

84 Action Potential

85 Terminology contd Synaptic Space: The space between terminal buttons
Neurotransmitters: chemical substances carrying messages Synaptic vessels: where the molecules are stored in the terminal buttons. Receptor site: where the molecules are picked up, which continues the impulse.

86 Neurotransmitters and behavior
Acetylcholine – Excitatory at synapses involved in muscular movement Too much acetylcholine is related to depression, undersupply produces memory loss in Alzheimer’s disease; absence produces paralysis. Dopamine – Excitatory, involved with voluntary movement, emotional arousal, learning, memory, and experiencing pleasure and pain. Undersupply: Depression and Parkinson’s disease. Oversupply related to Schitzophrenia.

87 Neurotransmitters and behavior
Norepinephrine – associated with Excitory and inhibitory functions at various sites; involved in neural circuits related to controlling memory, learning, wakefulness, and eating. Too little associated with depression, too much associated with schizophrenia. Serotonin – Significant for moods, sleep, eating and arousal. May be related to relaying pleasure and pain. Too little serotonin is related to both depression and panic illnesses as well as OCD. Some anti-depressants raise serotonin levels at the receptor sites. GABA- Inhibitory transmitter in the motor system Undersupply: tremors and loss of motor control as well as personality changes

88 Biological methods of studying the brain
Invasive and Non-invasive 2 important categories to keep in mind Invasive: going into the brain physically Destruction and Stimulation techniques Non-Invasive: scanning in other ways EEG:electroencephalogram Brain Imaging such as: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) CAT/CT Radioactive labeling PET (Positron emission tomography)


90 MRI


92 A good video

93 The Brain and behavior Brain stem: Supports vital life functions i.e. Medulla: which runs the heart and respiration.

94 The brain Continued: Pons: a ”bridge” of sorts that sends nerve impulses between the higher and lower parts of the nervous system. Cerebellum : Muscle movement and coordination, but also plays a role in learning and memory. Midbrain: Clusters of sensory and motor neurons. Talamus: a “switchboard” that organizes input from sense organs and routes the input to appropriate areas of the brain. Hypotalamus: en mindre grupp neuroner som delvis kontrollerar emotion and motivation, sexdrift, temperatur, sömnmönster, ätandet, drickandet, and aggression.

95 The cortex Motor Cortex: Controls more than 600 voluntary muscles
Somatosensory cortex: receives sensations in form of nerve impulses. Also coordinates movement and balance

96 Motor hjärnbarken

97 Somatiska sensoriska hjärnbarken

98 Localisation of function and the split brain
Sperry Experiment

99 Left hemisphere Language Mathematics Logic Etc.

100 Right Hemisphere Spatial understanding and ability Facial Recognition
Musicality Mental images

101 Split Brain. När man klippa Corpus Callusum

102 Se ”split brain”länken på itslearning

103 The Brain Continued: Language
Wernicke’s area: Speech Understanding Broca’s area: In the frontal lobe. Connected to the motor cortex and significant for speech formation.

104 Glands Endocrine System Releases hormones
Made up of cells and neurons which react to specific hormones Much slower than nerve impulses Stays in the blood system a longer amount of time

105 Basics The endocrine system—the other communication system in the body—is made up of endocrine glands that produce hormones, chemical substances released into the bloodstream to guide such processes as metabolism, growth, and sexual development. Hormones are also involved in regulating emotional life.

106 Glands in the endocrine system
Thyroid: Releases Thyroxin, a hormone that can decrease concentration and lead to irritation when the thyroid is overactive. When underactive it causes drowsiness and a slot rate of metabolism. Parathyroid: Within the thyroid are four tiny pea-shaped organs, the parathyroids, that secrete parathormone to control and balance the levels of calcium and phosphate in the blood and tissue fluids. This, in turn, affects the excitability of the nervous system

107 Endocrine contd The Pineal Gland:The pineal gland is a pea-sized gland that apparently responds to exposure to light and regulates activity levels over the course of the day. The Pancreas: The pancreas lies in a curve between the stomach and the small intestine and controls the level of sugar in the blood by secreting insulin and glucagon. The Gonads: These reproductive glands—the testes in males and the ovaries in females, and, to a lesser extent, the adrenal glands—secrete androgens (including testosterone) and estrogens.

108 More endocrine system The Adrenal Glande
The two adrenal glands are located above the kidneys. Each has two parts: an outer covering, the adrenal cortex, and an inner core, the adrenal medulla. Both influence the body's responses to stress. For example, in response to a stressful situation, the pituitary gland may release beta endorphin and ACTH, which, in turn, prompt the adrenal cortex to release hormones. Meanwhile, the autonomic nervous system stimulates the adrenal medulla to secrete hormones such as epinephrine into the bloodstream.

109 Neuroplasticity

110 Svagheter med biologiska perspectiveet
Reduktionistisk: Vi är maskiner. Svårt att skilja mellan natur and kulturella faktorer i behavior Mycket som är baserad på test på djur. Validitet? Behandling är medicinsk först and främst. (ofta effektiv…men…)

111 Styrkor med biologiska perspectiveet
Vetenskaplig Pålitlig Praktisk Bevisad till en viss grad. Klara kopplingar mellan vissa biologiska funktioner and behavior. Funkar för många olika sorts behandling

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