En presentation över ämnet: "Democracy. Definition There is no single definition of democracy that everyone can agree on. However there are a number of qualities (or requirements)"— Presentationens avskrift:
Definition There is no single definition of democracy that everyone can agree on. However there are a number of qualities (or requirements) that many people regard as necessary to be a ”democracy”. These qualities can be seen as 2 types: The democratic system The democratic values
System Direct Representative
System System Principles of Liberal DemocracyLiberal Democracy Popular Control of Governors Equality Political Freedom Majority Decision Making
System System Principles of Liberal Democracy Popular control of Govenors
System System Principles of Liberal Democracy Equality
System System Principles of Liberal Democracy Political Freedom Demonstration för Aung San Suu Kyi - ledaren för den demokratiska rörelsen NDL i Burma (NDL = Nationella demokratiförbundet)
System System Principles of Liberal Democracy Majority Decision Making
Democracy around the world The countries coloured blue claim to be democractic, those coloured red do not.
Democracy around the world Democracy in the world (2009) according to Freedom house “Freedom House is an independent watchdog organization that supports the expansion of freedom around the world. Freedom House supports democratic change, monitors freedom, and advocates for democracy and human rights.” (source)source
Democracy Index 2010 Democracy Index 2010. http://www.eiu.com/public/ http://www.eiu.com/public/topical_report.aspx?campaignid=demo2010
The road to democracy in Sweden 1974-års regeringsform "All offentlig makt i Sverige utgår från folket. Den svenska folkstyrelsen bygger på fri åsiktsbildning och på allmän och lika rösträtt. Den förverkligas genom ett representativt och parlamentariskt statsskick och genom kommunal självstyrelse." (Regeringsformen 1:1)
Democracy in Sweden All public power proceeds from the people and that the Riksdag is the foremost representative of the people. The 349 members of the Riksdag are chosen by the citizens every four years in general elections. The task of these members is to represent the Swedish people and to ensure that it is the people's will that is expressed in decisions taken by the Riksdag. The Riksdag makes decisions that affect the whole of society. It interacts closely with a number of other public actors – Government, public agencies, municipalities, county councils and the EU.
Universal suffrage Universal suffrage means that all citizens have the right to an equal vote. At the start of the 20th century less than one in ten Swedes had the right to vote. To be able to vote required high income or wealth. In 1919 Sweden established equal voting rights for men and women. Although men were required to have performed national service to be able to vote. In 1921 the first election was held where women voted. In 1923 the national service requirement for men to vote was abolished. The 1924 election was the first where men and women voted equally. Universal suffage was established in Sweden in 1945, then even people in the ”poorhouse” (fattigvården) were able to vote.
Womens voting rights New Zealand 1893 Australia 1902 Finland 1906 Norward1913 Denmark & Iceland1915 Great Britain1918 USA (Presidential) 1920 Sweden1921 France1944 Italy1946 Ellen Hagen (t.v) och Anna Whitlock (t.h.) på Renberget på Skansen i samband med internationella kvinnokongressen (The International Woman Suffrage Alliance) i Stockholm den 14 juni 1911.
Civil Rights movement in USA ”Jim Crow” laws maintained segregation between black and whites. ”The presence of segregation is the absence of democracy” In 1954 the US Supreme Court ruled that race segregated schools went against the constitution. Rosa Parks:1955 – the start of the civil rights movement. Martin Luther King – assassinated 1968 Malcolm X – assassinated 1965 1963 March On Washington 200 000 participants. ”I have a dream”
Apartheid South Africa: 1948 - 1994 Workplaces and jobs were segregated. Public and private areas were also segregated. Only whites had the right to vote. Nelson Mandela – an opponent of apartheid Imprisoned for 27 years.
Tiananmen Square Protests A student movement during the spring of 1989 that was crushed by the army on June 4. Goal: increased democratisation, reduced corruption and recognition of their independent student movement. Result: Hundreds dead and thousands injured. Although evidence suggests the deaths did not occur in the Square, rather in other areas of Beijing.
Threats to democracy
A long time to build, quick to collapse Through brutal violence Coups of various types: Greece, Spain, Germany, Chile, etc. Can also occur more subtely with many small but specific changes to important details in the system. Democracy’s institutions kan lose their internal integrity and norms through neglect or through a leader abusing the trust of the people
Facism Authoritarian political ideology, anti-democratic. The states needs comes before the individual. Wish to build a strong national identity. Benito Mussolini, Italy 1920s Fracisco Franco, Spain 1930s
Organised crime Intimidation, extortion, blackmail, threats and voilence is used to scare witnesses away from testifying at court cases. ” Det lönar sig definitivt inte att låta dem hålla på. Ger man efter så är slaget förlorat. Det är var och ens förbannade skyldighet att se till att göra någonting.” Chefsåklagare Barbro Jönsson som 2007 utsattes för ett sprängattentat i sin bostad
Indifference toward elections EEU parliamentary election SSweden had the lowest voter turnout in 2004 (38%), but higher in 2009 (44%) ””Likgiltigheten är farlig. Att så många människor, och i stor utsträckning arbetare, avstår från att rösta i Europaparlamentsvalet är ett hot mot demokratin. Det finns en risk att vi får högerextrema krafter som representerar Sverige i Europaparlamentet; krafter som försöker skapa motsättningar och ställa människor mot varandra. I tider som dessa är det viktigare än någonsin att värna om demokratin, att aktivt bidra till ett samhälle som bygger på solidaritet och att ställa upp för varandra.” Wanja Lundby-Wedin