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Local Area Network Management,Design and Security Hårdvara i LAN –Kap.3 i kursboken Jag har kastat in delar i kapitlet.

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En presentation över ämnet: "Local Area Network Management,Design and Security Hårdvara i LAN –Kap.3 i kursboken Jag har kastat in delar i kapitlet."— Presentationens avskrift:

1 Local Area Network Management,Design and Security Hårdvara i LAN –Kap.3 i kursboken Jag har kastat in delar i kapitlet.

2 Servrar Filhantering (fig 3.2) Diskserver Filserver Applikationsservrar –Klient/server-teknik Databas Ekonomisystem Web/FTP/m.fl. –”Terminal”-teknik MS Terminal server/Citrix m.fl.

3 The disk server lets users share the disk. Programs and data can be shared on the file server User 1User 2User 3 User 9 U. 1User 2Word proc.. Spreadsheets Other progs User areaData area Fig. 3.2 s. 114

4 Högprestanda-anslutning SB SCSI (SCUZZY). Serial SCSI IEEE1394 (FireWire, i.Link) IP storage/iSCSI Fibre Channel Serial ATA

5 Disk CD-rom Terminator Disk CD-rom Terminator PrinterScanner Internal devices External devices Internal devices Fig. 3.4 SCSI-terminering

6 SCSI (scuzzy) Small Computer System Interface SCSI-1 5MHz 8bitar 40Mbps 1 enhet. SCSI-2 standard SCSI (Narrow). –Narrow 5MHz 8bitar 40Mbps 7 enheter –Fast 10MHz 8bitar 80Mbps 7 enheter. –Wide 5MHz 16bitar 80Mbps 15 enheter. –Fast Wide 10MHz 16bitar 160Mbps 15 enh.

7 SCSI (scuzzy) SB SCSI-3. –Ultra SCSI 20MHz 8 bitar 160Mbps (20) 7/3… –Wide Ultra SCSI Mbps (40) 15 –Ultra2 SCSI Mbps (40MByte/s) 7 –Wide Ultra2 SCSI (80MByte/s) 15 –Ultra3 SCSI Mbps 7 (80MByte/s) 7 –Wide Ultra3(Ultra160) Mbps (160MB/s) 15 –Ultra Mbps (320MByte/s) 15

8 SCSI (scuzzy) SB Singel ended (SE) 1 tråd/signal (1,5-3m) Differential 2 trådar/signal (motsatt spänning) (25m) Low-voltage differential (LVD) lägre spänning (12m) SCA Single Connector Attachment

9 SCSI (scuzzy) Kontakter Table 3.3 s.119 –+ VHDCI SCSI ID –Kontroller ID# 7 (Högst prioritet) –Bootdisk ID# 0 Terminering Fig. 3.4 s.120 Table 3.4 s.121 obs id# 7 & Diff./LVD

10 Serial SCSI IEEE1394 (FireWire, i.Link) SB IEEE1394 FireWire Mbps12,5-50 MBps IEEE1394B FireWire800/FireWire Mbps MBps Skärmad koppar 4,5m, CAT-5 & Fiber 100m [45W]

11 IP storage/iSCSI SB IP Storage is a technology that encompasses block storage transfer over an IP network. iSCSI is a protocol standard for encapsulating SCSI in TCP/IP for transfer over an IP network TCP Offload Technology TCP Offload Engine (TOE)

12 Fibre Channel SB Seriellt kommunikationsprotokoll används: –Punkt till punkt –Ringnät (FC-AL) max 126 enheter Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop –Växlat nät (FC fabric) Fibre Channel Fabric 2 24 adresser (~16 miljoner enheter) Olika fabrikat sällan helt kompatibla

13 Fibre Channel SB Koppar-kabel (500m)- eller Fiber-kabel (~10 km) Dubblerad kabel för säkerhetens skull. Felrättande kod på byte och paketnivå Hastigheter: 100MByte/s -> 400MByte/s På gång (1,6 GByte/s = 12,8 Gbit/s) Enheter kan anslutas under drift (Hot-plug) LAN Free backup

14 Fibre Channel Class Of Service SB FC Class-1: Dedicated connection, full bandwidth, and confirmed delivery FC Class-2: Confirmed delivery FC Class-3: "Data Gram" delivery NOT confirmed FC Class-4: Virtual Connection, fractional bandwidth, confirmed delivery

15 Serial ATA SB 150 MByte/sec (SATA II 300MByte/s) Serial ATA is a "serial" architecture as opposed to today's "parallel" ATA internal disc drive bus. Serial ATA wraps many bits of data into a packet and then at a higher speed (up to 50% higher) than parallel, transfers the packet of data down the wire to or from the host.(Point-to-point) With ”parallel” ATA Cyclic Redundancy Checking (CRC) is performed on the data being transmitted back and forth but not on the commands. Serial ATA integrates CRC on the command and data packet level for enhanced bus reliability. Cyclic redundancy code detects all single and double-bit errors and ensures detection of % of all possible errors. A Serial ATA drive can transfer data at 150MB/sec on the bus to the host system with extremely reliable accuracy and the Serial ATA interface will continue to allow scalability for a very long time.

16 Hårdvara i en server Datalagring Bussar & In/Ut-enheter (I/O) Primär-minne Moderkort/Chipset CPU/Cache Låda med power-supply och UPS Backupenheter Network Interface Card (NIC)

17 Datalagring Floppydisk (FDD) (Diskett) Diverse skivor (ZIP-Drive. MMO m.fl) CD/DVD CD/RW CD-växlare Stora system kostar ofta :-/cd-plats.Flera läsare/brännare kan ofta installeras i växlaren och dessa kan då användas parallellt. Hårddiskar (HDD) ”Tapestorage”

18 Hårddiskar (HDD) SB IDE 2 st enheter EIDE 2+2 st enheter (vanligast) SATA1st enhet/anslutning SCSI 1 & 2 7st enheter SCSI 2 & 3 (Wide)15st enheter JBOD Just a Bunch Of Disks RAID NAS/SAN

19 Bussar ISA EISA MCA Local bus VESA local bus PCI local bus AGP(1,2,4,8) (Interna, på moderkortet)

20 Bild med jämförelse av ”bus”- prestanda Table 3.5 s AGPx8

21 In/Ut-enheter (I/O) SB 1.Serie-portar 2.Parallell-portar 3.USB(Universal Serial Bus) 4.IEEE1394/1394B (FireWire, i.Link) 5.IDE/EIDE(Integrated drive electronics) 6.SATA(Serial ATA) 7.SCSI (Scuzzy) (Small computer system interface) 8.SSA(Serial storage architecture) 9.Fibre Channel 10.IP-storage/iSCSI

22 Primär-minne Minne Grundrek Mbyte i server Läs om minnen s SDRAM DDR-SDRAM (Dubbel fart) Direct Rambus DRAM (DRDRAM)

23 Moderkort/Chipset AT/ Baby AT (! För gammalt) ATX (Vanligaste kortet) LPX (PCI-kort på eget ”kort”) NLX (PII/PIII-processor, USB ingår) WTX (Lågpris-kort) EATX (Ej standard max 13” x 12” ”Rackmonteringskortet” 1U) Chipset !(s ) Flerprocessorkort Nytt

24 SB CPU/Cache SB CPU 2 st endast 50% ökning av prestanda, men en hängd CPU tillåter ändå access till datorn om den andra svarar. Cache L1, L2 (L3 i minnet)

25 Låda med power supply Krav på låda för server: –Bra med platser för enheter –Luftig (Bra med utrymme och bra fläktar) –Power supply ska orka driva allt. Figure 3.13 & Table 3.8 s Rackmonterat 19”-rack Redundant power supply Dubblerad strömförsörjning inne i dator eller annan utrustning, var och en klarar av att driva hela utrustningen själv.

26 UPS UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) –Batteri-drift –Störskydd –Signalkabel fig.6.15 s.244 –Driftstid batterier? –Skydd för NIC? –Övervakningsbar? (SNMP)

27 UPS COM1: Power net Fig 6.15 s.244

28 Backup-enheter S Disketter Andra skivor –Zipdrive/LS-120 mfl –CD/RW –DVD/RW Minnesmoduler (extremt snabbt ) Flyttbara hård-diskar Backup-station

29 Backup-station SB Automatisk Backup: – Autochanger, Autoloader, Library Backup-tape: –QIC -> 6Mbyte/minut 1-5Gbyte –4mmDAT 2.4 Mbyte/sec 40GB compressed –D8 (8mm) 14GB ? –DLT III- IV 1,5-6Mbyte/sec 20-80GB compressed –Super DLT 12Mbyte/sec 100- GB compressed (Quantum.) –AIT Advanced Intelligent Tape (SONY) –Ultrium (Ultrium Linear Tape Open (LTO)) IBM, HP and Seagate’s nya bandtyp Generation 1 tape max 100Gbyte

30 AIT-1 SB AIT-1 format, introduced in 1996, capacity 25GB (65GB compressed*) An extended length tape for the AIT-1 drive was introduced to offer additional capacity of 35GB (91GB compressed*). 3 (7,8)Mbyte/s data transfer rate (compressed*). *2,6:1 komprimering

31 AIT-2 & 3 SB AIT-2 capacity 50GB (130GB) data transfer rate 6 (15,6)MB/s AIT-3 capacity 100GB (260GB) data transfer rate 12 (31,2) MB/s. (compressed)

32 Mer AIT SB SAIT-1 capacity 500GB and a data transfer rate of up to 30MB/s. AIT-4 is now in development planning for In keeping with the original plan of doubling capacity and transfer rate, this format would offer 200 (520)GB of native capacity, with a data transfer rate of 24 (62,4)MB/s

33 Ultrium SB Ultrium provides for 4 different cartridge capacities (20, 60, 100, and 200 GB- -assumes 2:1 compression) and 8-channel head geometries in the first generation that provides for data transfer rates of MB/ second (2:1 compression). The multiple-capacity cartridges allow the technology to be matched to capacity, performance, and cost requirements of the application. Generation 1Generation 2Generation 3Generation 4 Capacity(2:1 comp) 200 GB400 GB800 GB1.6 TB Transfer Rate MB/sec 2:1 comp) Instant Access to Usage Data—via LTO CM (cartridge memory), an embedded electronics and interface module that can store and retrieve a cartridge's historical usage and other information.

34 Network Interface Card (NIC) Använd speciella NIC i server eftersom dessa har stöd för snabbare nätaccess, oftast i form av större buffrar. Stöd för automatisk växling (hot-spare) till reserv NIC kan också finnas. Läs mer om NIC & kablar i boken s &

35 Klientdator (Workstation) Klientdator – PC med NIC ! Tunna klienter (Disk-lösa) –BootPROM på NIC – OS på server –PXE på NIC – OS på server MS Terminalservices

36 Skrivare SB Skrivare(Printer) Till dom flesta laserskrivare finns nätverkskort som tillbehör. Andra typer av skrivare kan via speciell extern nätverks-utrustning (print-server) ansluta standard parallell-port.

37 Övrigt SB Hot-swap Enheten kan bytas under drift Hot-spare Enheten är monterad i förväg, normalt sker växling till ny enhet automatiskt Hot-plug Enhet kan kopplas in under drift jmf. USB, Ethernet hub/switch, SAN mfl.


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