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Writing a Report English 7 Mia Jönsson.

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1 Writing a Report English 7 Mia Jönsson

2 Why Write a Report? Some of the reasons to write a report are to:
Inform Make proposals or recommendations for change Analyse and solve problems Present the findings of an investigation or project Record progress Report writing is an essential skill for professionals. A report aims to inform, as clearly and succinctly as possible.

3 Core Content English 7 Centralt innehåll
Samhällsfrågor, kulturella, historiska, politiska och sociala förhållanden samt etiska och existentiella frågor i olika sammanhang och delar av världen där engelska används. Muntlig och skriftlig produktion och interaktion i olika situationer och med olika syften, där eleverna argumenterar ur olika perspektiv, ansöker, resonerar, värderar, utreder, förhandlar och motiverar sina åsikter. Strategier för användning av olika typer av källor, med källkritisk medvetenhet och vedertagna sätt att ange källor, inom valt fördjupningsområde och inom andra områden.

4 Knowledge Requirements English 7
5) Eleven kan välja och med viss säkerhet använda strategier för att söka relevant information, strukturera den och värdera olika källors tillförlitlighet. 8) I skriftliga framställningar i olika genrer kan eleven formulera sig varierat, tydligt och strukturerat. 10) Eleven kan formulera sig skriftligt med flyt och viss anpassning till syfte, mottagare och situation. 11) Eleven bearbetar, och gör välgrundade förbättringar av, egna framställningar. 17) Eleven diskuterar översiktligt några företeelser i olika sammanhang och delar av världen där engelska används, och kan då också göra enkla jämförelser med egna erfarenheter och kunskaper.

5 Report or Essay? A Report An Essay Presents information Presents an argument Is meant to be scanned quickly by the reader Is meant to be read carefully Uses numbered headings and sub-headings Uses minimal sub-headings, if any. May not need references and bibliography/reference list Always needs references and bibliography/reference list Uses short, concise paragraphs and dot-points where applicable Links ideas into cohesive paragraphs, rather than breaking them down into a list of dot-points Uses graphics wherever possible (tables, graphs, illustrations) Rarely uses graphics May need an abstract (sometimes called an executive summary) Will only need an abstract if it is very long, or if your lecturer asks for one specifically May be followed by recommendations and/or appendices Seldom has recommendations or appendices A common problem is that students transfer what they have learned about essay writing to report writing. Both essays and reports need: formal style careful proof-reading and neat presentation introduction, body and conclusion analytical thinking. But there are some essential differences between the two. A report differs from an essay in that a report: presents information, not an argument is meant to be scanned quickly by the reader uses numbered headings and sub-headings uses short, concise paragraphs and dot-points where applicable uses graphics wherever possible (tables, graphs, illustrations) may need an abstract (sometimes called an executive summary) does not always need references and bibliography is often followed by recommendations and/or appendices.

6 Structure of a Report Title page (Abstract) Table of contents
Introduction Body Conclusion Sources (Appendices) 3.1 Title page See example on the front page of this compendium. Title centered, subtitle under, somewhat smaller. In right hand lower corner: full name, class, course, school, date and mentor/teacher. Size 12, Times New Roman. List of contents See example below (p.6). Introduction The introduction should get the reader’s attention (by being interesting) and here you must also clearly state your thesis (question) and what the aim of the essay is. You should also mention sources and limitations (i.e, if your subject is big and you have concentrated on a small part of it). The body This is the main part of your essay, the analysis/investigation/research. Divide your text into logical parts with headings and subheadings. Remember to state your source in the text (as well as in the list of sources), using one of the two systems explained below (p. 4-5, citing sources), but never mixing them. This is the part where you report and analyze the opinions of others (your sources). You will have the opportunity to comment and give your own opinions in the conclusion. Conclusion Here you should repeat your thesis and ask yourself if you have gotten the answers you were looking for. Sum up the essay and if you have opinions of your own regarding this subject, you can voice them here in the conclusion.

7 Steps in Writing a Report
Brainstorm Organise your information Write an outline Write a first draft Re-write to improve the first draft Edit and proofread Consider format and layout Writing your report is an ongoing process of writing and re-writing. Therefore, it's important to realise that you don't need to begin at the introduction and write until you get to the conclusion. Often the body is written first. Also, you're not expected to produce the perfect report the first time you put pen to paper – expect to have to redraft your report. For many students, the main difficulty in writing a report is to organise the information. By the time you’ve finished researching, you’ve often gathered an incredible amount of information. So, what do you do with this large pile of papers? You have to break down the information using headings and sub-headings, then decide upon a logical order. You need an overall plan, which will also keep you on the subject.

8 Where do I Start? Step by step – the writing process! Pick your topic
Narrow your topic down Create a sample outline/disposition Today: brainstorm topic Wednesday: create an outline, look at a sample report Choose a topic that you love. Feeling passionate about a topic will drive you to do your best work possible. Of course, sometimes you will not have the option to choose your topic. If this is the case, try to find something about the assigned topic that you can get passionate about. Always make sure to run your ideas by your teacher to make sure that it is okay that you approach the report in this way. If your assignment is to give a report on a particular event of the 1960’s in America, and you don’t like history but you do like music, focus your report on the way the music in the 1960’s tied into the event that occurred during that time. Keep in mind that you can change your topic. If you begin to research the topic you have chosen and realize that you can’t find any information on the topic, or that your topic is too broad, you can always change your topic, so long as you are not starting your project the day before its due. If you find that your topic is too broad, try to pick a specific part of the topic to focus on.

9 Topic Examples The impact of urban sprawl in Sydney
NHL lockout in the US and Canada Ecotourism in South Africa Social issues Mexico – United States border The impact of music in the Civil Rights Moment Effects of religious affiliation in US Congress Measures against hooliganism in Britain Why the Falkland islands is still a British issue Urban sprawl - The unplanned, uncontrolled spreading of urban development into areas adjoining the edge of a city. The term urban sprawl generally has negative connotations due to the health, environmental and cultural issues associated with the phrase.[2]Residents of sprawling neighbourhoods tend to emit more pollution per person and suffer more traffic fatalities. NHL lockout – why did it happen? Discuss issues, negotiations and effects. Ecotourism – what is it? Why so popular? Social issues Mexico US border. The most frequently crossed border in the world. Why is that? What is the situation like? Security, illegal immigration, costs, drug war The impact of music on the Civil Rights Moment – impact changes in society have on the music industry and if popular music can influence political change

10 Citations and References
All sources must be handed in! Background material and facts MUST have sources You are not allowed to ”borrow” sentences from other texts, unless you are quoting.  PLAGIARISM You must rephrase to make the words your own. Never use words you do not understand! Sources need to be listed both as citations and references! Books, printed internet pages and copies from encyclopaedias. I must be able to cross check your references! If the sources are not handed in, I will not read and grade the report. If you quote from a text, remember to use quotation marks and let the reader know who you are quoting. The quote must be a word for word copy of the source. Use one of the two ways described to cite sources in the text. In the text, directly after each quote or opiniion of your sources, you must let the reader know who sair or thought it. Also after any fact or information you must state your source. There are two systems that can be used. Choose one, do not mix them! Harvard system Oxford system (Vancouver system for science)

11 Oxford System Footnotes
After the quote or opinion, you write a footnote by using the commando: Referenser – Infoga fotnot In the foot note: write the last name of the author and the number of the page/s where you found the quote or opinion. After the quote or opinion press “infoga” – “referens” – “fotnoter och slutkommentarer”. A number will show up in the text, and the same number will turn up at the bottom of each page as a footnote, and there you should write the last name of the author and the number of the page/s where you found the quote or opinion. If the reader wants to know from what book it is taken, they can look in the list of contents. Example: “All Elizabethan comedies end with marriage” . Dickson p. 104

12 Harvard System Parenthetic referencing
After the quote or opinion, you put parentheses with the last name of the author and the page number Parentheses After the quote or opinion, you put a parenthesis with the last name of the author and the page number. After the parenthesis you put the full stop (if the sentence was finished), or the comma (if you are in the middle of a sentence.) Example 1: “All Elizabethan comedies end with marriage” (Dickson, p. 104). Example 2: “All Elizabethan comedies end with marriage” (Dickson, p. 104), which also proves the believed connection between happiness and matrimony.

13 List of contents (1 page)
Title page (1 page) List of contents (1 page) Introduction (0,5 page) Introduce topic and why it is interesting. Aim and thesis (research question). Mention sources and limitations. Bodies (2-3 pages) Main part of the essay, the actual research. Divided into different parts by headings and subheadings. Opinions of others – your sources. Conclusion (0,5 page) Summary, conlusion, ”answer” your research question. (Own opinions). No new information! List of sources (1 page)

14 Reliable Sources?
How to find reliable sources.

15 Sources University of Canberra Learning Skills Unit, RMIT University
Learning Skills Unit, RMIT University

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