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1 DVA215 INFORMATION - KUNSKAP - VETENSKAP GENERALISERBARHET Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Mälardalens högskola.

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En presentation över ämnet: "1 DVA215 INFORMATION - KUNSKAP - VETENSKAP GENERALISERBARHET Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Mälardalens högskola."— Presentationens avskrift:

1 1 DVA215 INFORMATION - KUNSKAP - VETENSKAP GENERALISERBARHET Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Mälardalens högskola

2 2 INFORMATION

3 3 Google Knowledge Graph KUNSKAP

4 4 Atlas of Science VETENSKAP

5 5 Human Connectome Project

6 6 DATA INFORMATION KUNSKAP DATA – INFORMATION - KUNSKAP Människan som interaktiv varelse och informationsvarelse (inforg) LÄRANDEPROCESSEN effektiviserar interaktioner Levande organismer är läraktiga agenter

7 7 NÄTVERKSMODELLER proteinnätverk i jästceller socialt nätverk www

8 KUNSKAPSGENERATION: VÄRLDEN SOM INFORMATION FÖR EN AGENT Bilden från:

9 9 LÄRANDE OCH KUNSKAP Hebbs teori: "celler som avfyras tillsammans, sammankopplas" (eng. "cells that fire toghether, wire togher"). Barnet föds med nervsystemet och hjärnan och förmågan att ta olika intryck från världen.

10 Networks understanding networks, MIT conference Albert-László Barabási MÄNNISKAN ELEMENTÄRA PARTIKLAR ATOMER MOLEKYLER CELLER ORGANISMER SOCIALA GRUPPER EKOLOGIER PLANETSYSTEM GALAXER UNIVERSUM INFORMATIONSNÄTVERK

11 GENERALISABILITY Based on FontD Seminar 2004 Hans Niedderer Mälardalens Högskola

12 ASPECTS OF GENERALISABILITY Aspect 1: Statistics and classical quantitative design Aspect 2: Generalisability as essential feature of theory Aspect 3: Generalisability and paradigm (Kuhn)

13 ASPECT 1: GENERALISABILITY GUARANTEED BY DESIGN? Weaknesses of case studies (Wirth & Leutner 2004) … No discovery of a universal, generalizable truth … No discovery of a cause-effect relationship … Not appropriate for testing hypotheses

14 GENERAL EMPIRICAL APPROACH (Wirth & Leutner 2004) Generalization Induction Modification Deduction of hypothesis Scientific observation Theory Question Problem Internal Validity Validation: "building the right thing?” Verification "building it right?".

15 GENERAL EMPIRICAL APPROACH (Wirth & Leutner 2004) Generalization Induction Modification Deduction of hypothesis Scientific observation Theory Question Problem Internal Validity => "External validity"

16 EXTERNAL VALIDITY Extent to which conclusions drawn from a scientific observation can be generalized to other situations or points of time. Control environmental conditions, real life setting, representative sample, replication (in different contexts), theory use

17 Aspect 1: Statistics and classical quantitative design Generalisability... seen as a problem of design and statistical evidence.

18 Aspect 2: Generalisability as essential feature of theory Reif, F., Larkin, J. H. (1991) Cognition in Scientific and Everyday Domains: Comparison and Learning Implications, JRST Vol. 28, NO. 9 Central goal: Optimal prediction and explanation Requirements: Maximal generality, parsimony, precision, consistency "Generalisability as definition of science" (Reif, Larkin, Schecker, Niedderer) Generalisability... seen as amount and quality of use of theory.

19 THEORY WITH GENERAL CONCEPTS Try to come to general definitions of concepts: use the same definition for every case, not one definition in one case and a different definition in an other case (as we would all do it in everyday life context!) Similar: work on general claims or hypotheses

20 Aspect 3: Generalisability as acceptance in the scientific community T. S. Kuhn distinguishes three phases of development of a scientific theory: the pre-paradigmatic phase: Many different questions, many "theories", little generalisability the paradigmatic phase, high generalisability of paradigmatic research the revolutionary phase: generalisability of the new paradigm takes time to build up.

21 In the paradigmatic phase of research, there are agreed questions concepts repeated and agreed results meanings This gives a body of agreed knowledge which gives the highest amount of generalisability (Generalisability by cummulation in the scientific community) Aspect 3: Generalisability as acceptance in the scientific community

22 PARADIGM SHIFT ABOUT TEACHING AND LEARNING Acceptance in the community of practioners: still high Example of a generalisable statement, not yet fully accepted: A learner's constructions are different from the teaching input - as a rule, not as an accident INFORMATION NETWORK VIEW – EVEN MORE COMPLEX! (Gordana‘s comment)

23 FINAL CONCLUSION Try to come to theoretical definitions of concepts and claims, thus building up potential generalisability Generalisability is a decision of the community of researchers, developping a paradigm (Kuhn), coming to paradigmatic research This decision is based on empirical research in combination with normative decisions about relevant questions and theoretical approaches To formulate it the other way round: I do not believe in generalisability from one study.

24 In this view, generalisability means similar questions are asked with similar theory with similar results by (many) other researchers This is why literature search and writing a "state of the art" and relating this to own results is so important! FINAL CONCLUSION

25 25 VI BEFINNER OSS I EN “KOGNITIV REVOLUTION” OCH DET ÄR VIKTIGT ATT FÖRSTÅ HUR PROCESSER AV SKAPANDE AV KUNSKAP FUNGERAR INFORMATION - KUNSKAP – VETENSKAP? -in-cognitive-sciences-december-2012.jpg


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